The Car Rental Industry


Market Overview

The car rental industry is a multi-billion dollar sector of the US economy. The US segment of the industry averages about $18.5 billion in revenue a year. Today, there are approximately 1.9 million rental vehicles that service the US segment of the market. In addition, there are many rental agencies besides the industry leaders that subdivide the total revenue, namely Dollar Thrifty, Budget and Vanguard. Unlike other mature service industries, the rental car industry is highly consolidated which naturally puts potential new comers at a cost-disadvantage since they face high input costs with reduced possibility of economies of scale. Moreover, most of the profit is generated by a few firms including Enterprise, Hertz and Avis. For the fiscal year of 2004, Enterprise generated $7.4 billion in total revenue. Hertz came in second position with about $5.2 billion and Avis with $2.97 in revenue.

Level of Integration

The rental car industry faces a completely different environment than it did five years ago. According to Business Travel News, vehicles are being rented until they have accumulated 20,000 to 30,000 miles until they are relegated to the used car industry whereas the turn-around mileage was 12,000 to 15,000 miles five years ago. Because of slow industry growth and narrow profit margin, there is no imminent threat to backward integration within the industry. In fact, among the industry players only Hertz is vertically integrated through Ford.

Scope of Competition

There are many factors that shape the competitive landscape of the car rental industry. Competition comes from two main sources throughout the chain. On the vacation consumer’s end of the spectrum, competition is fierce not only because the market is saturated and well guarded by industry leader Enterprise, but competitors operate at a cost disadvantage along with smaller market shares since Enterprise has established a network of dealers over 90 percent the leisure segment. On the corporate segment, on the other hand, competition is very strong at the airports since that segment is under tight supervision by Hertz. Because the industry underwent a massive economic downfall in recent years, it has upgraded the scale of competition within most of the companies that survived. Competitively speaking, the rental car industry is a war-zone as most rental agencies including Enterprise, Hertz and Avis among the major players engage in a battle of the fittest.


Over the past five years, most firms have been working towards enhancing their fleet sizes and increasing the level of profitability. Enterprise currently the company with the largest fleet in the US has added 75,000 vehicles to its fleet since 2002 which help increase its number of facilities to 170 at the airports. Hertz, on the other hand, has added 25,000 vehicles and broadened its international presence in 150 counties as opposed to 140 in 2002. In addition, Avis has increased its fleet from 210,000 in 2002 to 220,000 despite recent economic adversities. Over the years following the economic downturn, although most companies throughout the industry were struggling, Enterprise among the industry leaders had been growing steadily. For example, annual sales reached $6.3 in 2001, $6.5 in 2002, $6.9 in 2003 and $7.4 billion in 2004 which translated into a growth rate of 7.2 percent a year for the past four years. Since 2002, the industry has started to regain its footing in the sector as overall sales grew from $17.9 billion to $18.2 billion in 2003. According to industry analysts, the better days of the rental car industry have yet to come. Over the course of the next several years, the industry is expected to experience accelerated growth valued at $20.89 billion each year following 2008 “which equates to a CAGR of 2.7 % [increase] in the 2003-2008 period.”


Over the past few years the rental car industry has made a great deal of progress to facilitate it distribution processes. Today, there are approximately 19,000 rental locations yielding about 1.9 million rental cars in the US. Because of the increasingly abundant number of car rental locations in the US, strategic and tactical approaches are taken into account in order to insure proper distribution throughout the industry. Distribution takes place within two interrelated segments. On the corporate market, the cars are distributed to airports and hotel surroundings. On the leisure segment, on the other hand, cars are distributed to agency owned facilities that are conveniently located within most major roads and metropolitan areas.

In the past, managers of rental car companies used to rely on gut-feelings or intuitive guesses to make decisions about how many cars to have in a particular fleet or the utilization level and performance standards of keeping certain cars in one fleet. With that methodology, it was very difficult to maintain a level of balance that would satisfy consumer demand and the desired level of profitability. The distribution process is fairly simple throughout the industry. To begin with, managers must determine the number of cars that must be on inventory on a daily basis. Because a very noticeable problem arises when too many or not enough cars are available, most car rental companies including Hertz, Enterprise and Avis, use a “pool” which is a group of independent rental facilities that share a fleet of vehicles. Basically, with the pools in place, rental locations operate more efficiently since they reduce the risk of low inventory if not eliminate rental car shortages.

Market Segmentation

Most companies throughout the chain make a profit based of the type of cars that are rented. The rental cars are categorized into economy, compact, intermediate, premium and luxury. Among the five categories, the economy sector yields the most profit. For instance, the economy segment by itself is responsible for 37.7 percent of the total market revenue in 2004. In addition, the compact segment accounted for 32.3 percent of overall revenue. The rest of the other categories covers the remaining 30 percent for the US segment.

Historical Levels of Profitability

The overall profitability of the car rental industry has been shrinking in recent years. Over the past five years, the industry has been struggling just like the rest of the travel industry. In fact, between the years 2001 and 2003 the US market has experienced a moderate reduction in the level of profitability. Specifically, revenue fell from $19.4 billion in 2000 to $18.2 billion in 2001. Subsequently, the overall industry revenue eroded further to $17.9 billion in 2002; an amount that is minimally higher than $17.7 billion which is the overall revenue for the year 1999. In 2003, the industry experienced a barely noticeable increase which brought profit to $18.2 billion. As a result of the economic downturn in recent years, some of the smaller players that were highly dependent on the airline industry have done a great deal of strategy realignments as a way of preparing their companies to cope with eventual economic adversities that may surround the industry. For the year 2004, on the other hand, the economic situation of most firms have gradually improved throughout the industry since most rental agencies have returned far greater profits relative to the anterior years. For instance, Enterprise realized revenues of $7.4 billion; Hertz returned revenues of $5.2 billion and Avis with $2.9 billion in revenue for the fiscal year of 2004. According to industry analysts, the rental car industry is expected to experience steady growth of 2.6 percent in revenue over the next several years which translates into an increase in profit.

Competitive Rivalry Among Sellers

There are many factors that drive competition within the car rental industry. Over the past few years, broadening fleet sizes and increasing profitability has been the focus of most companies within the car rental industry. Enterprise, Hertz and Avis among the leaders have been growing both in sales and fleet sizes. In addition, competition intensifies as firms are constantly trying to improve their current conditions and offer more to consumers. Enterprise has nearly doubled its fleet size since 1993 to approximately 600,000 cars today. Because the industry operates on such narrow profit margins, price competition is not a factor; however, most companies are actively involved in creating values and providing a range of amenities from technological gadgets to even free rental to satisfy customers. Hertz, for example, integrates its Never-Lost GPS system within its cars. Enterprise, on the other hand, uses sophisticated yield management software to manage its fleets.

Finally, Avis uses its OnStar and Skynet system to better serve the consumer base and offers free weekend rental if a customer rents a car for five consecutive days Moreover, the consumer base of the rental car industry has relatively low to no switching cost. Conversely, rental agencies face high fixed operating costs including property rental, insurance and maintenance. Consequently, rental agencies are sensitively pricing there rental cars just to recover operating costs and adequately meet their customers demands. Furthermore, because the industry experienced slow growth in recent years due to economic stagnation that resulted in a massive decline in both corporate travel and the leisure sector, most companies including the industry leaders are aggressively trying to reposition their firms by gradually lessening the dependency level on the airline industry and regaining their footing in the leisure competitive arena.

The Potential Entry of new Competitors

Entering the car rental industry puts new comers at a serious disadvantage. Over the past few years following the economic downturn of 2001, most major rental companies have started increasing their market shares in the vacation sector of the industry as a way of insuring stability and lowering the level of dependency between the airline and the car rental industry. While this trend has engendered long term success for the existing firms, it has heightened the competitive landscape for new comers. Because of the severity of competition, existing firms such as Enterprise, Hertz and Avis carefully monitor their competitive radars to anticipate Sharpe retaliatory strikes against new entrants. Another barrier to entry is created because of the saturation level of the industry.

For example, Enterprise has taken the first mover advantage with its 6000 facilities by saturating the leisure segment thereby placing not only high restrictions on the most common distribution channels, but also high resource requirements for new firms. Today, Enterprise has a rental location within 15 miles of 90 percent of the US population. Because of the network of dealers Enterprise has established around the nation, it has become relatively stable, more recession proof and most importantly, less reliant on the airline industry compared to its competitors. Hertz, on the other hand, is utilizing the full spectrum of its 7200 stores to secure its position in the marketplace. Basically, the emergence of most of the industry leaders into the leisure market not only drives rivalry, but also it varies directly with the level of complexity of entering the car rental industry.

The Threat of Substitute

There are many substitutes available for the car rental industry. From a technological standpoint, renting a car to go the distance for a meeting is a less attractive alternative as opposed to video conferencing, virtual teams and collaboration software with which a company can immediately setup a meeting with its employees from anywhere around the world at a cheaper cost. In addition, there are other alternatives including taking a cab which is a satisfactory substitute relative to quality and switching cost, but it may not be as attractively priced as a rental car for the course of a day or more. While public transportation is the most cost efficient of the alternatives, it is more costly in terms of the process and time it takes to reach one’s destination. Finally, because flying offers convenience, speed and performance, it is a very enticing substitute; however, it is an unattractive alternative in terms of price relative to renting a car. On the business segment, car rental agencies have more protection against substitutes since many companies have implemented travel policies that establish the parameters of when renting a car or using a substitute is the best course of action.

According to Tracy Esch, an Advantage director of marketing operations, her company rents cars up to a 200-mile trip before considering an alternative. Basically, the threat of substitute is reasonably low in the car rental industry since the effects the substitute products have do not pose a significant threat of profit erosion throughout the industry.

The Bargaining Power of Suppliers

Supplier power is low in the car rental industry. Because of the availability of substitutes and the level of competition, suppliers do not have a great deal of influence in the terms and conditions of supplying the rental cars. Because the rental cars are usually purchased in bulk, rental car agents have significant influence over the terms of the sale since they possess the ability to play one supplier against another to lower the sales price. Another factor that reduces supplier power is the absence of switching cost. That is, buyers are not affected from purchasing from one supplier over another and most importantly, changing to different supplier’s products is barely noticeable and does not affect consumer’s rental choices.

The Bargaining Power of Buyers

While the leisure sector has little or no power, the business segment possesses a significant amount of influence in the car rental industry. An interesting trend that is currently underway throughout the industry is forcing car rental companies to adapt to the needs of corporate travelers. This trend significantly reduces supplier power or the rental firms’ power and increases corporate buyer power since the business segment is excruciatingly price sensitive, well informed about the industry’s price structure, purchase in larger quantities and they use the internet to force lower prices. Vacation buyers, on the other hand, have less influence over the rental terms. Because vacationers are usually less price sensitive, purchase in lesser amounts or purchase more infrequently, they have weak bargaining power.

Five Forces

Today the car rental industry is facing a completely different environment than it did five years ago. Competitively speaking, the revolution of the five forces around the car rental industry exerts some strong economic pressure that has significantly tarnished the competitive attractiveness of the industry. As a result of the economic downturn in recent years, many companies went under namely Budget and the Vanguard Group because their business infrastructure succumbed to the untenability of the competitive environment. Today, very few firms including Enterprise, Hertz and Avis return a slightly above-average revenue compared to the rest of the industry. Realistically speaking, the car rental sector is not a very attractive industry because of the level of competition, the barriers to entry and the competitive pressure from the substitute firms.

Strategic Group Mapping

As a moderately concentrated sector, there is a clear hierarchy in the car rental industry. From an economic standpoint, disparities exist from a number of dimensions including revenue, fleet size and the market size each firm holds in the market place. For instance, Enterprise dominates the industry with a fleet size of approximately 600,000 vehicles along with its market size and its level of profitability. Hertz comes in second position with its number of market shares and fleet volume. In addition, Avis ranks third on the map. Avis is among one of the companies that is having issues recovering its revenue margins from prior to the economic downturn. For instance, in 2000 Avis returned revenues of approximately $4.23 billion. Over the course of the next several years following 2000, the revenue of Avis has been significantly lower than that of 2000. As a way of reducing uncertainty most companies are gradually lessening the level of dependency on the airline industry and emerging the leisure market. This trend may not be in the best interest of Hertz since its business strategy is intricately linked to the airports.

Key Success Factors

There are many key success factors that drive profitability throughout the car rental industry. Capacity utilization is one of the factors that determines success in the industry. Because rental firms experience loss of revenue when there are either too few or too many cars sitting in their lots, it is of paramount importance to efficiently manage the fleets. This success factor represents a big strength for the industry since it lowers if not completely eliminates the possibly of running short on rental cars. Efficient distribution is another factor that keeps the industry profitable. Despite the positive relationship between fleet sizes and the level of profitability, firms are constantly growing their fleet sizes because of the competitive forces that surround the industry. In addition, convenience is one of the crucial attributes by which consumers select rental firms. That is, car rental consumers are more prone to renting cars from firms that have convenient rental and drop off locations. Another key success factor that is common among competing firms is the integration of technology in their business processes. Through technology, for instance, the car rental companies create ways to meet consumer demand by making renting a car a very agreeable ordeal by adding the convenience of online rental among other alternatives. Furthermore, firms have integrated navigation systems along with roadside assistance to offer customers the piece of mind when renting cars.

Industry Attractiveness

There are many factors that impact the attractiveness of the car rental industry. Because the industry is moderately concentrated, it puts new market entrants at a disadvantage. That is, its low concentration represents a natural barrier to entering the industry as it allows existing firm to anticipate sharp retaliations against new entrants. Because of the risks associated with entering the industry among other factors, it is not a very attractive sector of the marketplace. From a competitive standpoint, the leisure market is 90 percent saturated because of the active efforts of Enterprise to dominate this sector of the market. On the other hand, the airport terminals are heavily guarded by Hertz. Realistically speaking, entry in the industry offers low profitability relative to the costs and risks associated. For most consumers, the main determining factors of choosing one company over another are price and convenience. Because of this reason, rental firms are very circumspect about setting their rates and that generally force even the industry major players in the position of offering more to the consumers for less just to remain competitive. Hertz, for example, offers wireless internet to its customers just to add more convenience to their travel plans. Avis on the other hand, offers free weekend specials if a customer rents a car for five consecutive weekdays. Based on the impact of the five forces, the car rental sector is not a very attractive industry to potential new market entrants.


The rental car industry is in a state of recovery. Although it may seem like the industry is performing well financially, it is nonetheless gradually regaining its footing relative to its actual economic position within the last five years. As a way of insuring profitability, besides seeking market shares and stability, most companies throughout the chain have a common goal that deals with lowering the level of dependency on the airline industry and moving toward the leisure segment. This state of motion has engendered some fierce competition among industry competitors as they attempt to defend their market shares. From a futuristic perspective, the better days of the car rental industry have yet to come. As the level of profitability increases, I believe that most of the industry leaders including Enterprise, Hertz and Avis will be bounded by the economic and competitive barriers of mobility of their strategic groups and new comers will have a better chance of infiltrating and realizing success in the car rental industry.


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Source by Rodrigue Monestime

Advantages and Disadvantages of Buying a Car Online


If you are planning to buy a new car, you can either go to your friends who can recommend a good car company or just do it yourself. Nowadays, there is a new trend with regard to buying cars-and that is buying them online. This is the fastest way of buying a car. You do not need to go to the car stores yourself. Buying online only needs a little time surfing the Internet. Plus, you will not have to leave the comforts of your home.

However, just like any other venture, buying a car online has its advantages and disadvantages. It is important that you be aware with regard to this matter. Having the right knowledge with regard to this will guarantee a quality choice of buying a car.

Advantages of Buying a Car Online

*It saves you time and money

Yes, online buying of cars will save you money. You do not need to go to nearby car outlets. All you need to do is to open your computer and surf the Internet. It requires less time and less effort and means lesser money spent. The lesser the money you spend, the better. You can instead invest you money on some other expenses like the maintenance of your car.

*Wide choice of cars styles

Online purchasing offers you a wide array of options to choose from. Different styles of cars are offered even just on one site. A site contains almost all the new and unique models of the time. It always has the trendiest options. Online purchasing provides you with a wide range of choices with just a click of a button.

Disadvantages of buying car online

*You can’t test drive the car or check its exterior and interior parts

This the major disadvantage of buying a car online. You can’t hold or test the car yourself. Testing is a very important because it will determine if the car is at par with other when it comes to performance. If you cannot test it, how sure are you that it will work well? You also can’t examine by the quality of the car parts firsthand as compared to going to nearby car outlets and examining the car of your choice.

*Risks of not knowing the supplier

This is also one of the dangers of buying a car online. You have to be sure that the company or site isn’t into fraud. Online buying includes widespread swindling that victimizes thousands of people around the world. Check the site for authenticity before buying anything.

*Spending more money in shipping fees

Shipping fees and taxes are sometimes not included in the prices that are posted on the website. This is a risk in buying online. Instead of saving money, you may end up spending more.

Put the aforementioned into consideration before purchasing online and you can be sure to have a well-thought decision.


Source by Richard Dean Basa

Which Car Colour Is Best?


Generally, the colour of the car a motorist chooses to buy is either down to personal preference, or has had no bearing on the purchase at all.

Many people are prepared to sacrifice their favourite colour for a cheaper and more economical vehicle, or one for which they can get a lower cost car insurance quote.

However, various studies, such as one undertaken by a research team from the University of Tilburg in the Netherlands in 2010, show that some colour vehicles are stolen less often (brighter colours like pink and orange), so this might be something which drivers take into account when browsing used car websites or showroom forecourts.

Another colour-related study of vehicles by researchers from Monash University in Australia in 2007 showed that some drivers apparently put themselves at greater risk of suffering an accident due to the colour of their car’s paintwork.

Police data collected on 850,000 traffic accidents showed that black, grey, silver, red and blue vehicles were involved in a greater number of crashes on average than white or orange cars. This was possibly due to how much, or how little, the colour of the car stood out from the surrounding road.

Furthermore, one car insurance website states that because many individuals are conservative when it comes to their car colour choices, manufacturers are too. Whereas a motorist may only have to wait a week for their brand new silver or black vehicle, the waiting period for something more unusual such as yellow or turquoise may be significantly longer.

Many people don’t want to wait too long for their car to be delivered, so they’ll choose one of the more popular colours to speed up the process.

Resale value might also influence a driver’s automobile colour choice. When it comes to selling a vehicle on, some colours might be snapped up at a better price than others. For instance, one company noted that upon the release of its Colour Popularity Report for 2011, white or ‘pearl’ coloured vehicles had topped the resell price charts in North America for four years running.

In August 2011, a car insurance price comparison site stated, “You might fancy an offbeat colour like purple or orange but will potential buyers be queuing up to take it off your hands in a few years time?”

And a used car website spokesperson added, “[5% off a vehicle’s value] might not sound like very much but on a used car worth £20,000, an undesirable shade would cut £1,000 off the value.

“It also makes the car harder to sell as you could have to wait some time for the right buyer, during which you’ll lose money through depreciation and additional advertising costs.”

Whether people are influenced by this data or not, some motorists take car colour very seriously because they believe that it may influence their life in a negative or positive way.

In India, many drivers choose the colour of their vehicle using astrology. Similarly to how some people in Britain look at their star sign to find a compatible partner, depending on when they were born and the position of the planets at the time, some Indians feel that certain car colours will be more suitable for them than others.

Individuals who have the zodiac sign Aries will find a good vehicle match with a red, yellow or orange car. Those under the sign of Taurus should purchase a vehicle which is white, green or black. Geminis are most suited to red, green or grey. Cancerians should buy white, red or yellow cars. Leos would do well to purchase a car with red, yellow, orange or white paintwork, while Virgos should buy red, green or grey vehicles.

A Libra may enhance their life with a white, green or black vehicle. Scorpio, Sagittarius and Pisces should purchase a car in red, yellow or orange. Bronze is another option for Sagittarius and Pisces. And lastly Capricorn and Aquarius may want to buy vehicles which are blue, green or yellow to match their birth dates.

By choosing a car in a colour which matches their zodiac sign, these drivers believe that they can bring good luck upon themselves.

Which ever way a person chooses their vehicle’s colour, it is important for them to check that they can afford the insurance and fuel costs which come hand in hand with car types. Moreover, they should perform an HPI check if they are buying second-hand.

It’s important for people to remember not to get too caught up in the colour of their vehicle. It’s the vehicle type they should choose the most carefully, and, when the time comes, the tyres and any other replacement parts. These could help reduce the driver’s risk of suffering an accident or increase them if they are of poor quality or meant for a different vehicle.


Source by Alicia Denny

The Pros and Cons of Becoming a Caterer


So, you’ve loved food all your life, and have finally come to the conclusion that you want to have a job that includes food. You’re interested in becoming a caterer, but aren’t sure of the details, the benefits, nor the negative aspects. Becoming a professional caterer, while exciting and enjoyable for those who have a creative eye and a love for food, can prove to include working long hours and having excellent customer service and math skills.

While no training is necessarily needed, having an Associates or Bachelor of Arts degree in Culinary Arts would definitely improve your skills, as well as any restaurant experience as a server or manager. As a caterer, you can often work from home; it’s a great job for those who want to be self-employed, but keep in mind, the start-up fee is often $10,000+.

For those whom don’t want to start their own business, there are catering businesses that require both experience in the food industry as well as some type of culinary training, usually in the form of a B.A. or Associate’s degree. As a catering manager, you would oversee the entire facility, as well as work with each customer, planning their entire event, and contributing the best of customer service.

A caterer has to make sure that he or she works well with people and has great interpersonal communication skills because it’s imperative to the job. As a catering manager, you might also be asked to have computer experience, team-building skills, as well as distinct attention to detail. Especially if you own your own business, you must have an eye for detail, in terms of bookkeeping, new ideas for party theme, and scheduling of events.

There are actually different types of caterers, and pros and cons come with each specialty.

  1. Mobile Catering – This type of catering is the newest trend; food trucks are the latest trend in party catering. While being a mobile caterer has low start-up fees, this can be challenging, considering your limited space and lack of brand awareness. One must be sure to do plenty of social media advertising and marketing for the city (or cities) which the truck covers.
  2. Business Catering – This is popular due to the fact that it’s year-round, versus special event and mobile catering, which is limited to warmer months. Also, if you get in with a corporate giant, they usually stay with who they like, and you’ll have a consistent flow of income.
  3. Special Events Catering – This form of catering is for the creative type of caterer; you get to show off your artistic skills. They provide food for weddings, anniversaries, and any type of event in which you can show off your innovative culinary abilities. However, you must be able to be laid-back and accept constructive criticism.

When it comes to entering the catering industry there are pros and cons, but if you have the right skills and abilities, and the love for event planning, becoming a caterer is just the right niche for you.


Source by Cindy Messing

America’s Top 200 Attributes


Technology and Industrialism

1. A phone system that works virtually all of the time

2. Electricity and running water

3. Toilets and toilet paper

4. Easy access to the Internet

5. Email

6. Instant messaging

7. Skype and video chat services for long-distance communication

8. Social networking sites

9. Cell phones and text messaging

10. Shops with free Wi-Fi

11. Digital cameras

12. Central heating and cooling

13. ATMs

14. Washing machines and dryers

15. Food blenders

16. Microwaves

17. Target and Wal-Mart

18. Coffeemakers

19. TiVo and DVR

20. Ability to pay bills online

21. Google

22. YouTube

23. Digital cameras

Capitalism (In flux)

24. The stability of currency

25. The entrepreneurial spirit

26. The stock market, yes, even now

27. Self-employment opportunities galore

28. A diverse job market

29. Mail and delivery services

30. Free interstate commerce


31. Airports that are usually well-functioning

32. The interstate highway system

33. Highway rest areas

34. Low gasoline prices (compared to Europe)

35. Public transportation

36. U.S. passports

37. Car and truck dealerships

38. Taxis

Health and Diet

39. The variety of foods available

40. Availability of locally grown produce

41. Foods from all around the world

42. Farmers’ Markets

43. Health clubs, gyms, and exercise equipment

44. The vitamin industry

45. WebMD (

46. Organic supermarkets

47. Increasing crop yields

48. Cookbooks

49. DVDs and TV channels dedicated to health, diet, and exercise

50. Availability of flu shots

51. Standards for immunizations

52. Dental and orthodontic care

53. Variety of specialized care available

54. Nursing homes and assisted living facilities

Freedom and Equality

55. The Constitution and its amendments

56. The peaceful transference of power

57. Religious freedom

58. The right to peaceful assembly

59. Freedom of expression

60. Traditional presidential pardons

61. Freedom of speech

62. Freedom of the press

63. Democracy and the right to vote

64. Accessible polls for voting

65. Diversity

66. Social mobility

Access to Information and Education

67. Elementary, middle, and high schools

68. The variety of DVDs, CDs, digital programs, and books available


70. Debates on live television

71. Public libraries

72. Business, law, and medical schools, etc.

73. Endowments and scholarship programs

74. Major daily newspapers

75. Live television news

76. Instantly up-to-date online news

77. How-to and do-it-yourself blogs and websites

78. Wikipedia

79. Dictionaries, encyclopedias, and reference books on all topics

80. The community college system

81. Online higher education programs

82. A&E, TLC, and History Channel productions

83. PTA

84. Public museums

85. Standards for literacy


86. The Red Cross

87. Telethons

88. Per capita contributions to charity organizations

89. The United Way

90. Relief organizations

91. Civic participation and volunteerism

92. Homeless shelters

93. Big brother/big sister programs

94. Goodwill, thrift stores, and consignment shops

95. Senior discounts

96. Foster homes

97. Adoption agencies

98. Meals on Wheels

99. Foundations for cancer research

100. National months of awareness for a variety of issues

101. YMCA and YWCA

102. Salvation Army

Safety and Protection

103. Emergency operating rooms

104. Clean water

105. Air that’s safe to breathe

106. Maternity wards

107. Emergency response systems

108. Ambulances and emergency rooms

109. Free clinics

110. Urgent care centers

111. The U.S. Department of Defense

112. Clean, safe streets and highways

113. Traffic lights, well-marked road signs and lanes

114. Copyright laws

115. Restaurant and food sanitation standards

116. The FDA

117. Free public restrooms

118. The watchdog aspect of the press

119. The system of juris prudence (usually)

120. Daycare centers

121. Seatbelts and airbags

122. The Armed Forces

123. The police force

124. The fire department

125. Neighborhood watch programs

126. Adopt-a-street and adopt-a-waterway programs

127. Pets on leashes (usually)

128. Trash and recycling pick-up

Traditions and Ceremonies

129. Cookouts and barbecues

130. Graduation ceremonies

131. Family farms

132. Family reunions

133. Baby and wedding showers

134. Easter egg hunts

135. Trick or treat-ing

136. Exchanging Christmas gifts

137. Memorial Day, Labor Day

138. Thanksgiving

139. 4th of July celebrations and fireworks

140. The Times Square New Year’s Eve celebration and ball drop


141. Theme parks

142. State fairs

143. Rock and roll music

144. Country music

145. Disney World, Disney Land

146. Universal Studios

147. Sea World

148. Variety in music

149. Magazines for every interest

150. Mp3 players

151. Little Leagues

152. Talk Radio

153. Award shows

154. Major League Baseball

155. National Football League

156. National Hockey League

157. Major League Soccer

158. Professional golf, tennis, and other sports

159. College sports

160. Comedians

161. Public recreation facilities

162. Hiking, walking, and biking trails

163. Zoos

164. Aviaries

165. Aquariums

166. Sport camps

167. Podcasts and webcasts

168. Venues for music and the dramatic arts

169. Cultural festivals

170. Arts festivals, music festivals

171. Ski resorts

Sites and Attractions

172. The national park system

173. The reclamation of lakes and waterways

174. Safe campgrounds

175. The beaches

176. The mountain ranges

177. Varied geography, even within states

178. Variety of sizes of towns and cities

179. The Grand Canyon

180. Mt. Rushmore

181. Nashville, Tennessee

182. Chicago

183. Hawaii

184. Golden Gate Bridge, San Francisco

185. Niagra Falls, New York

Organizations and Institutions

186. The American Dental Association

187. Senior communities

188. Scouting organizations

189. Colleges and universities

190. American Association of Retired Persons

191. National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

192. American Medical Association

193. American Bar Association

Historical Landmarks

194. Washington, D.C.

195. Jamestown

196. Alaska

197. New York City

198. Boston

199. College towns

200. Gettysburg


Source by Christie Ray Harrison

Crippled By Fear of Driving on Freeways? Here’s 5 Driving Phobia Treatments That Really Work


You’re nearing the onramp. Suddenly, you notice a constriction in your chest. Driving up the ramp, you feel a rush of fear as adrenaline surges through you. It’s like being on a rollercoaster; the sweaty, dizzy feeling as the chain drags the coaster to the top of that first monster drop. Except being scared on a rollercoaster is kind of fun. Feeling scared when you’re accelerating, trying to merge safely into the steel river of traffic looming in front of you…NOT fun. Not fun at all.

If this sounds familiar, you’re not alone. You’re one of millions of people gripped by intense fear of driving on freeways, a type of driving phobia.

Wikipedia defines a phobia as “persistent fear of an object or situation in which the sufferer commits to great lengths in avoiding”. If you have driving phobia, it’s probably specific to only a few situations. You may have no problems most of the time, but certain settings trigger powerful sensations of anxiety, panic, and being trapped. Freeways are one of the most common trigger environments.

Breaking Down Freeway Fear: What Are You REALLY Afraid Of?

It’s likely you struggle with one or more of the following:

Merging. Merging into traffic at freeway speed is very stressful. Even “normal” (aka non-phobic) drivers find their hearts pounding a little. Merging can feel exposed and overwhelming. It feels unsafe because there’s too much happening too fast.

Lane changes. The combination of speed and traffic makes changing lanes difficult. Also, pushy drivers sometimes monopolize every extra inch of space, making lane changes even harder for less confrontational types. Lateral movement across lanes takes skill and a certain amount of aggression. This is tough with driving phobia.

Passing or overtaking. Going around other vehicles at high speed is nerve-racking because you’re so close to other large, moving objects. It’s especially bad passing trucks or other big vehicles. Passing feels exposed and claustrophobic too.

Feeling trapped. Driving phobia is a manifestation of agoraphobia, which “clusters” around social interactions where exit or escape is difficult. Like sitting in bumper to bumper traffic, or driving over a bridge where pulling over isn’t possible. Any experience of close quarters with other people and no “fast out” can trigger panic. Crowded freeways are a prime candidate.

One option, of course, is to just avoid freeways altogether. But what if you live in a densely populated area? Many people live in places where freeway driving is a fact of life. Some have reported driving an extra 2 hours a day to avoid them, but this is not a viable solution for most people.

So what can you do to overcome or reduce your fear of driving on freeways? Are there viable options out there?

5 Effective Treatment Options

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT). Generally considered the most effective for phobia, CBT helps you identify factors which contribute to your anxiety. It shows how your thoughts contribute to the problem, and how to change destructive thinking. It also helps reduce or stop unwanted, anxious behavior patterns.

Driver Training / Coaching. Perhaps your fear is due to feeling that you lack good driving skills. Whether you need to learn how to drive, or just want to brush up your abilities, a good defensive driving course can make you more confident behind the wheel.

Hypnotherapy. Common misconceptions about hypnosis are that you’re under someone’s “spell” and might be manipulated. This is mostly due to stage hypnosis that’s used for entertainment. A qualified hypnotherapist treats anxiety by inducing a relaxed state where you learn to change your internal reactions to fear triggers.

This also helps you control the physical reactions of anxiety like dizziness and hyperventilation by stimulating the parasympathetic response – your body’s built in stress reduction mechanism.

Self-Help. Many, MANY resources are available. Evaluate your options carefully here, and proceed with caution. If you’re brand-new to this world, you may want to start with professional therapy. It takes familiarity with effective treatment to accurately evaluate the quality of self-help resources. Not all are created equal, and not all have your best interests in mind.

Medication. Sometimes anxiety is so intense it must be chemically reduced before other options can be explored. Medication is not an effective long-term strategy for driving phobia. It should be combined with other methods for more successful recovery. Always seek medical advice from a qualified professional like a doctor or psychiatrist. NEVER buy anti-anxiety medication from potentially dangerous sources like so-called “generic drug” websites.

You don’t have to live like this. And you don’t have to continue avoiding freeways either. Your condition is highly treatable – it’s just a matter of finding the options that work best for you.

Next time your heart starts pounding as you approach an onramp, make a vow to get help for this crippling problem. When the day comes where you’re driving easily down a freeway, WITHOUT fear, you’ll be really glad you did.


Source by Greg Weber

How to Paint Aluminium Window Frames


If you have old aluminium windows that you want to either restore the existing colour or you wish to change the colour, then, you can rest easy. You’ve come to the right place.

The process of aluminium window painting can be broken down into a series of steps with two distinct stages. These are preparation and application. The inexperienced however, will try and skip on the preparation to the detriment of the look and durability of the finished product.


The amount of preparation needed mainly depends on the type and condition of the original substrate. For example, if you have old powder coated painted aluminium windows that has chalky paint and rubs off against your fingers, then this will take a lot more preparation than newer powder coated surface that’s not chalking and is being painted for a colour change.

However, anodized aluminium windows will take a lot more preparation than all other substrates regardless of its substrate condition because, the surfaces needs a lot more mechanical abrasion to key the surface up enough to allow the paint to stick.

Protection of adjacent finished surfaces- Whenever you are painting isolated section, it is important that you protect adjacent finished surfaces. When painting the aluminium windows in your home or apartment, you’ll need to think about putting plastic drop sheets down, followed by canvas drop sheets. I suggest applying plastic film and 3M, which you can with a hand dispenser to protect the glass and the walls directly surrounding the window frame.

Cleaning – Make sure all surfaces are clean and free of dirt. Grime and grease are critical in the process of aluminium window painting. If surfaces are dirty then paint adhesion is reduced. Clean the frames on the outside with soapy water and a sponge. However, use a soap that is salt free such as truck wash. Wash off all excess soap with clean fresh water.

Then, alternately clean surfaces down both inside and out with solvent wash such as prepsol.

Use a scour to apply the solvent. The scour will clean and key the surface at the same time. It is important that you carry out a second solvent wash on dirty windows by applying solvent with a clean cloth then wiping off with another clean cloth.

Sanding the substrate – There is no easy way around this process. This can be difficult and monotonous especially getting into the tighter spots such as the upper channel because there is no mechanical sanding equipment that can make the job a lot quicker. Thus, doing the job manually by hand is hard and time consuming.

If you have powder coated surface that is chalking, I would recommend sanding with 120 grit. The sand paper is less likely to clog. If your substrate is powder coated and is not chalking then 240 grit will be enough to key the surface especially if you have scoured it first. However, if your substrate is anodized then you’re in for some real work because you’ll need to break out the 60 grit sand paper. Have some masking tape band aids for the ends of your fingers ready because this is where you are going to be “rubbing your fingers to the bone.”

Sixty grit will really carve the anodized surface up. And you would want the paint to really stick, right? Skip this and you’ll be doing the job all over again. Once you’ve done this, it’s best that you go over the job again with 120 grit sand paper to smooth out the gouges caused by the 60 grit.

You’re nearly ready to start the fun part which is applying the paint. Just before you paint a window give it another clean wipe using your solvent wash, remember to use two different clean cloths.

Painting- Use a three coat system with the first coat being a primer sealer light coat- use a single pac etch primer. The second coat being the first of the top coats, then the second top coat being the third coat.

At this point, you have to make a couple of choices. First, what type of paint do you want to apply? I recommend either oil based enamel or a two pac poly urethane. If you have little or no experience with using two pacs, stick with the oil based enamels and apply it using a quality brush. However, if you have used two pacs before, then, the only way to apply them is by using an HVLP spray gun in order to gain quality finish. The benefit of using a two pac paint over an oil based enamel, is that you will get a more durable quality finish that closely resembles a powder coat finish.


Source by Chris T Vernon

Car Magnet FAQs


While car magnets are, for the most part, a fairly-simple car sign product, there are some common questions that potential customers often ask about them. Here are some of the most-frequent questions customers need help with concerning car magnets.

How do I keep my car magnets from flying off my vehicle?

First, make sure your printing company sells magnets with rounded corners. This process makes the magnets much more aerodynamic and prevents air from catching the corners of the magnets and pulling them off the vehicle. Once you receive your magnet, make sure it is completely-flat before you apply it to your vehicle. If you ordered your magnets online, they were probably rolled in a shipping tube. Take your magnets out of the tube and flatten them on a refrigerator for 24 hours before installing them on your vehicle. Finally, make sure your vehicle and the magnet both are completely clean before installing-any dirt or dust between the vehicle and the magnet could cause it to fall off. Apply your magnet to a flat, smooth area of the vehicle with no curves, creases, or trim pieces.

What is the most-popular size for car magnets?

The most commonly-ordered car magnet sizes are 12″x24″ for cars and 18″x24″ for vans, trucks, and SUVs. There is no standard size for magnetic signs, however, because every vehicle is different. It’s important to measure the area of your vehicle before you order your magnets to make sure you get the right size. As mentioned in the previous question, magnets cannot cover any creases or trim on the door of the vehicle, so fit them to the flattest area available.

Are car magnets weather-resistant?

Reputable sign companies will print car magnets with UV-resistant inks that do not fade in the sunlight. They will also overlaminate the magnets, which means that a clear film is applied over the printed side of the magnet, which acts as a weather seal. Magnets should be removed in any extreme weather as a precautionary measure, but overlaminated magnets will hold up to rain, snow, heat, etc.

Can I get my car magnets made in shapes?

Many customers like to order round or oval-shaped magnets, but this generally depends on your sign company. Most round the corners as standard procedure, but beyond that, you’ll want to check with the professionals. Shapes are generally possible for a custom price. If this turns out to be too-expensive, consider ordering car decals, which can easily-be die-cut for a reasonable price.

How do I store car magnets?

Magnets should be stored completely-flat to make sure they do not bend or warp over time. Do not place them in the backseat of a vehicle or bed of a pickup truck. Stack magnets on top of each other front-to-back. If the magnetic sides of your magnets touch each other, they could get damaged.


Source by Robert Kinder

Will Providing My VIN Number Help Sell My Car?


First, a disclaimer: I’m going to call it a “VIN number” just like everyone else, even though we all know that the ‘N’ in VIN stands for “Number,” which I probably don’t have to tell you means we are all essentially calling it a Vehicle Identification Number… Number. Yes, just as we like to refer to our bank card Personal Identification Number as a PIN number, knowing full well that the ‘N’ in PIN also stands for “Number.” We digress…

Think of your VIN number as one of the little things that…well… COUNTS when it comes to selling your vehicle quickly. That tiny little combination of numbers and letters, typically found embedded in the dashboard of your vehicle (close to where it meets the windshield), or on the vehicle’s firewall, or on the driver’s side door post, or even on many of the main components of the originally manufactured vehicle (i.e., the engine), provides a lot of information to a potential buyer. And before I go on, allow me to dispel the myth that someone can use your VIN number to have a key made, which would make breaking into or stealing your car much easier. Don’t sweat it. It’s just not true.

While most of the the 17 individual numbers or letters only confirm much of what you would have already told a potential buyer about your vehicle — the year, make, model, body style, engine type, etc. — decoding the remaining digits is pretty irrelevant in the grand scheme of getting your car sold. Let’s face it, nobody outside of Robert Langdon really cares about deciphering the carline code (the what?) or figuring out at what assembly plant the vehicle was produced — yes, these are actual details that the individual numbers or letters of a VIN abbreviate for you. However, what a potential buyer would like to know — not just be told — are details related to the history of the vehicle. Herein lays the true beauty of the VIN number.

By providing the VIN number to potential buyers you are allowing them to virtually travel back in time, without a DeLorean, to make sure you’re not hiding anything about your vehicle. Did you know that every time a vehicle is treated by a [reputable] mechanic or service department that the diagnosis and treatment are logged under that vehicle’s VIN number? Think of it as a vehicle’s Social Security Number, or DNA, or fingerprint, or any other cheesy analogy that stresses that these numbers are UNIQUE for every vehicle. Yes, you could even say VIN numbers are like snowflakes because no two are alike. I would really just prefer you didn’t.

There are now a plethora of websites and services that offer Vehicle History Reports, where all someone needs to provide is a VIN number and they’ll provide documentation (some instantly on the web) confirming or dispelling all of a buyer’s worst fears – Is this vehicle stolen? Has there ever been any major frame damage? Did someone forge a river in this Jeep? Has it been on fire? Are there really only 18 miles on this ’95 Camry, or did someone jack with the odometer? Is this thing a LEMON or what?!

Selling a car is stressful. Buying a car, especially a used car, is more stressful. Next to buying a home, a vehicle is often the largest type of purchase people make and they don’t want to get ripped off. And they want to trust you, the seller, but they don’t want to be naive.

My answer to this question is an emphatic, “YES!” Put the minds of potential buyers at rest by providing your vehicle’s VIN number, so they can do their homework. And if you want to set yourself apart from other sellers with vehicles comparable to yours, do the buyer’s homework for them (your allowed – this isn’t school) and purchase the Vehicle History Report yourself. It’ll cost you about $20. I’m not suggesting giving it away, rather making it available. If you want selling your car to be easier, make buying your car easier.


Source by Adam Little

Popular Lionel Model Train Sets From 1946


In 1946 Lionel produced an array of outfits similar to those in their prewar catalogs. Among these offerings were 23 sets. This broad spectrum of sets allowed Lionel to offer outfits at several prices, with the least expensive outfit retailing for only $24.95, while the deluxe outfit was $85.00.

1946 was the debut year of many new designs, unlike the previous year which only rehashed previously produced products. New motive power included the O-Gauge 726 Berkshire, produced by installing a 2-8-4 mechanism in a boiler based on the prewar 226E, and the all-new 6-8-6 Pennsylvania turbine. The latter was offered in O-Gauge outfits as catalog number 671, while those included in O27 outfits were numbered 2020. To the lower end of the line was a streamlined 2-6-4 with the catalog number of 221.

New freight cars were introduced as well. The 2411 “big inch” flatcar shared its die-cast frame with the 2419 and 2420 work cabooses. Also using die-cast frames were the new dump cars: 3451 for logs and 3459 for coal. The new 2460 crane also had a die-cast frame, and rode on a pair of six-wheel trucks. These trucks shared many components with similar six-wheel trucks used on Bakelite-bodied 2625 passenger cars and the die-cast-bodied 2426W tender used by the 726.

The engineering used to produced the 1945, 2452 gondola, was expanded. The 2454 boxcar, 2465 Sunoco tank car and 3454 operating merchandise cars included plastic bodies mounted on steel frames. The 2452 was continued, and joined by a second gondola, the 2452X, which lacked the brake wheels and barrels that adorned the 2452.

The low-end O27 sets contained many cars that were reworked from prewar designs, but as more of the year passed, increasing numbers of new products were produced, which were included in more expensive outfits. Following up on the success of the 1945 knuckle couplers was a spectacular new feature included in the better sets, smoke. Even more spectacular, but much less widespread, was Electronic Control-the latter available only in set 4109WS. As was the case in 1945, the 1946 outfit boxes were simple corrugated cartons with pasted-on labels to identify the set they contained.

The following are some of the most sought after Lionel O27-Gauge Outfits from 1946:

1400W–Lionel O27 Passenger Set– Retailed for $35.95

Included: 221 2-6-4 steam locomotive with operating headlight; 221W sheet-metal tender; two 2430 blue Pullman cars; 2431 blue observation; eight 1013 curved and three 1018 straight track; 1019 O27 remote control track section; UTC Lockon, 926-5 instruction booklet; 1041 60-watt transformer.

This set was a slightly more expensive version of the 1400 outfit. For the an extra $5.95 over the 1400, a 221W whistling tender replaced the 221T, and the transformer was upgraded to a 1401 60-watt unit. In excellent condition, this set is worth approx. $650. In like new condition this set is worth approx. $1400.

1407B–Lionel O27 Switcher Bell Outfit– Retailed for $37.50

Included: 1665 0-4-0 steam switcher with operating headlight; 2403B slope-back tender with ringing bell; 2560 crane; 2452X gondola; 2419 work caboose; eight 1013 curved and five 1018 straight track; 1019 O27 remote control track section; UTC Lockon; 926-5 instruction booklet; 1037 40-watt transformer.

This train was powered by a 1665 0-4-0 switcher, which was a revamped prewar 1662 switcher. Among the changes made to the locomotive were the installation of the new postwar trucks on the tender, and mounting Lionel’s new knuckle couplers on the rear of the tender and pilot of the locomotive. Mounting an injection-molded plastic cab and two injection-molded plastic toolboxes onto the die-cast body casting created for the 2411 flatcar crated the 2419 work caboose. A die-cast smoke-jack was installed on the caboose cab. The sheet metal 2560 crane car was carried over form the prewar line in its original colors of yellow cab with red roof. The 1946 production of these cranes included two-piece booms that were riveted together, and had the Lionel name molded in. In excellent condition this outfit is worth approx. $900. In like new condition this outfit is worth approx. $1500.

1421WS–Lionel O27 Freight Train–Retailed for $85.00

Included: 2020 6-8-6 steam turbine locomotive with operating headlight and smoke; 2020W early coal whistle tender; 3451 operating log car; 2465 Sunoco double-dome tank car; 3454 merchandise car; 2472 non-illuminated Pennsylvania N5 caboose; 164 operating log loader; ten 1013 curved and five 1018 straight track; 1019 O27 remote control track section; pair of 1121 remote-control turnouts; UTC Lockon; 926-5 instruction booklet; 1041 60-watt transformer.

While the 1419W provided the owner with a coal empire, the 1421W, also priced at $85, created a lumber empire. Trailing the 2020 steam turbine in the set was a die-cast 3451 log dump car to be used in conjunction with the 164 log loader. The 1964 log car carried five unstained logs and was rubber stamped in silver. The pick up shoes were wired with blue wire, and a pair of 1121 remote-control turnouts was included in order to incorporate the 164 in the track layout. A silver 3454 operating merchandise car added even more action to the train, which was surprisingly finished with a plain red, non-illuminated 2472 caboose. Like the 1419WS, many examples of this set have been found with a 75-watt 1042 transformer rather than the listed 60-watt 1041. This train in excellent condition is worth approx. $1500 and in like new condition is worth approx. $1500.

The following are some of the most sought after Lionel O-Gauge outfits from 1946:

2110WS–Lionel Three-Car Passenger– Retailed for $75.00

Included: 671 6-8-6 steam turbine locomotive with operating headlight and smoke; 2466W early coal whistle tender; three 2625 heavyweight Pullmans; eight OC curved and five OS straight track; RCS uncoupling/operating section; 167 whistle controller; UTC Lockon; 926-5 instruction booklet.

To create a premium O-gauge passenger set, Lionel revived it prewar Bakelite “Irvington” passenger car. The postwar incarnation of this car included newly designed six-wheel trucks with knuckle couplers–derivatives of these trucks were used on the 2460 crane and 2426W tender as well. The car bodies were painted maroon or reddish-brown in contrast to the prewar color of medium brown. To tow this passenger train, Lionel used its replica of the Pennsylvania 20-wheel steam turbine, the 671. This set in excellent condition is worth approx. $1750 and this set in like new condition is worth approx. $2975.

2113WS–Lionel O-Gauge Three-Car Freight Outfit–Retailed for $67.50

Included: 726 2-8-4 Berkshire steam locomotive with operating headlight and smoke; 2426W die-cast whistle tender; 2855 black Sunoco single dome tank car; 3854 operating merchandise car; 2457 illuminated caboose; eight OC operating merchandise car; 2457 illuminated caboose; eight OC curved and sever OS straight track; RCS uncoupling/operating section; 167 whistle controller; UTC Lockon; 926-5 instruction booklet.

Premiering in outfit 2113WS was the new 2-8-4 Berkshire steam locomotive. Though a 2-8-4 would be a staple of Lionel’s O-gauge sets into the 1960s, the 1946 model was unique. The smoke unit was based on a light bulb, the motor and reversing E-unit was mounted horizontally, and the handrails mounted with turned stanchions. The earliest versions of the 726 were equipped with what collectors refer to as the “large stack” motor. Later, the number of field laminations was reduced, resulting is what is known as a “short stack” motor.

The corrugated component box was unique to the 1946 locomotive. Sealed with prewar-style orange and blue sealing tape, the carton was marked with a manufacturer’s seal that stated, “GAIR BOGOTA CORR. & FIBRE BOX CORP.” The ends of the box were stamped with “No. 726” in small lettering. The cars in tow were just as unique. Though cataloged as the common silver 2755, the tank car included was actually the scarce black 1855. The prewar semi-scale boxcar tooling was revived and modified with the addition of a roof hatch and internal mechanism to create an operating merchandise car, the 3854. This car is one of the most difficult to find items from the postwar era. In excellent condition this outfit is worth approx. $2000. In like new condition this set is worth approx. $3200.

2114WS–Lionel O-Gauge Three-Car Passenger Outfit–Retailed for $77.50

Included: 726 2-8-4 Berkshire steam locomotive with operating headlight and smoke; 2426W whistle tender; three 2625 heavyweight Pullmans; eight OC curved and five OS straight track; RCS uncoupling/operating section; 167 controller; UTC Lockon; 926-5 instruction booklet.

This was the most expensive passenger outfit offered in 1946. The three Bakelite 2625 Irvington passenger cars presented the 726 with a formidable load, especially those locomotives equipped with the later “short stack” motor. The die-cast tenders were equipped with die-cast whistle housings and, though initially stamped in white, ultimately were lettered in silver. In excellent condition the outfit is worth approx. $2500 and in like new condition is worth $4000.


Source by Joelyn Pullano