Loss and Grief Counseling Skills



The primary goal of grief counseling is to deal with the seven most painful feelings; everything else is a derivative of them. Every other painful feeling can be related to those. For example, anger is at the root of resentment and frustration, fear is the source of anxiety and insecurity, and emptiness gives rise to abandonment and loneliness. Shame is a combination of fear and guilt. It’s a fear about what other people may think if they knew.

There are three goals in grief counseling. The first and fundamental goal is to identify and experience the range and intensity of painful feelings that make up grief. We’re going to help the client to identify the feelings cognitively, and then to experience the full range from fear to despair as well as the intensity of the painful feelings related to his loss, or losses.

The second goal is to identify changes or maladaptive behaviour decisions which are related to the loss. This goal is very important in cases of complicated loss, which occurs when the painful feelings have not been dealt with in a healthy way. Instead of being expressed and shared, they’ve been defended against and protected, resulting in unhealthy or maladapted behaviours. By maladaptive we mean ineffective or unworkable or unhealthy behaviour decisions. When we see these behaviours continuing over years, over a long period of time, then we’re seeing this as a complicated bereavement experience of our client.

“Decisions” is an interesting word because the behaviour choices, or ways of coping with the pain, are often done unintentionally or unconsciously, but they are decisions nonetheless. A person can re-decide, can make different decisions about that pain and how to cope with it, how to deal with it.

The third goal of grief counseling is to complete unfinished business, and to say goodbye in order to say hello. It’s difficult to say hello to new life experiences until we say goodbye to old painful ones, and by goodbye we mean letting go. Saying goodbye, and letting go, and learning acceptance, which is a commonly used term, all mean the same thing.

Saying goodbye really encompasses all three objectives for grief counseling. A person hasn’t completely grieved, or said goodbye, or let go, until he has worked through the pain, identified and changed the behaviour decisions, and finished his unfinished business.

You can see that these goals correspond to the counseling process as we’ve been discussing it. It’s simply a reiteration of what we’ve been talking about. As we’re discussing loss and grief, I’d like for you to be thinking about your own losses. These could be deaths of loved ones, break-up of relationships, loss of parental caring and relationships are the major ones, the most difficult ones.

Once you’ve identified a loss and the person can express the sadness, how often do you go back to that loss? Maybe you think a person could experience those feelings surrounding a loss indefinitely just by putting himself back in that place again. How do you know when enough is enough?

There are two different views. The cognitive school says you don’t really get rid of the pain, you just know all about it. You become so familiar with it that it no longer has power over you. And the only way to know all about it is to experience it. There’s no other way. So there is a point at which cognitive therapy has to include grieving, otherwise there’s no true knowledge of the pain.

The other school of thought which is represented, for example, by people who use psychodrama a lot, is that when you express the pain it’s possible to release it, and to purge yourself of it. It may take a long time for that catharsis to be complete, but eventually the pain will be completely gone.

I tend to think it’s a combination of both. There is a catharsis effect, and some of the pain is released, but then there is also the cognitive aspect of knowing about the intensity of the pain, that takes the power away from it. I’m no longer frightened of the pain. I know about it and I’ve accepted it as mine, and as okay. I have embraced the pain.


Now let’s go on to looking at the painful feelings. The first goal of grief counseling is to identify and experience the range and intensity of painful feelings. It’s going to be important for us to review these feelings and to suggest some therapeutic interventions for working with the grieving person. We also need to realize what the fear of painful feelings is about.

Imagine a successful executive of a corporation who has never experienced any tragedy in his life, any major loss. He has a wife and three kids and he gets a phone call that one of his children, a six or seven year old child, has just been hit by a truck and killed in front of the house. The child came home from school and crossed the road in front of a gravel truck coming from a nearby construction site, and was killed. Now this man has a lot of responsibility to provide for his family and to keep his company going, and since he has experienced a tragic loss he goes for counseling. It’s very difficult for him to engage his pain, because he’s afraid of what?

He’s afraid of falling apart and of not being able to get on with all of the things he has to do. He needs to maintain the image of the corporate person. And he’s been working on being able to do this for many years and to continue with his heavy responsibilities. So not having experienced intense grief before, he doesn’t know that it’s not going to cause him to fall apart.

In fact he doesn’t realize that if he doesn’t allow himself to grieve, then he’s going to fall apart. It’s going to be just the opposite of what he’s afraid of. So we need to help that person get past the fear, and the way to do that is to encourage him to talk about the fear, to validate the fear, to reflect how scary it may be, and then invite him just to say a little bit about it.


I find this is a very effective approach when working with the very blocked, resistant client: invite him to say just a little bit about the little bit of fear that he may have. And once he feels supported with that, then he can go on to another painful feeling.

A gradual approach to the feared object is fundamental to working with fear. Remember that whenever there is fear, there is resistance, defenses. So it is important to go slowly, invite the person to say what the fear is about and after he has disclosed, ask him what it was like to talk about that. Then invite him to say a little more.

Whenever, there is disclosure of difficult, painful experience, be sure to process the process by saying, “What was it like talking about that? Is it OK?” This allows the client to control the pace and amount of disclosure and to validate the process and to maintain his sense of safety.

Sometimes the fear is about feeling so much of the pain, he will become depressed or so sad that he will never stop crying. So we can say, “I wonder if you are afraid that if you start crying you may never stop, and you will fill the whole world with your tears.” This can free up the sadness, and he will discover that the crying does end and he survived it. This will help the healing, and life will be easier and less sad.


Some grieving people find it easier to access anger than their sadness. They’ll use their anger to defend against their sadness. They feel strong with anger but weak and vulnerable with sadness. Generally the person who finds it easier to access anger in grief has an aggressive personality. They are usually outspoken, direct, and opinionated. In working with the very angry, grieving client, we can validate that anger for as long as he needs it to be validated. Draw it out and encourage him to express it, entitle him to that anger.

If we’re able to validate or support a person’s anger, what feeling comes next? The sadness will come out more easily if the anger has been properly supported. Now with the passive individual, who accesses sadness more easily, we need to help him express the anger. The passive individual feels guilty about anger and is afraid of its destructiveness. So to reach for anger we can use the word “cheated,” or another word that the person feels safer with.

So we can say, “I wonder if you feel a little cheated? Your husband has died, you expected you’d be able to retire together, you were looking forward to that. And now he’s gone. I wonder if you feel just a little bit cheated about that?” And sometimes what I find is that if I minimize a feeling and use the word cheated with that individual, she’ll maximize and say, “Yes, I feel really cheated.” And I’ll say, “Go on and say more about being cheated.” In fact she is talking about her anger, but she is just not using that word.

Try to find words that don’t offend the client or that don’t trigger the guilt or fear around anger. Try to use other approaches and other words. Here are some other approaches.

You can say things like, “What are some ‘why’ questions? If you were to ask ‘why’ questions about the death of your father, or the death or your child, what would they be?” What are some of those ‘why’ questions? Why did you die? Why him? Why did he leave me? Why not me? Why did God let this happen? Often the anger is directed at God. So then I’ll say, “What’s the feeling that goes with that why question? Fear, anger, guilt, sadness, emptiness?”

If it was a child the client may ask why a child died. Why not an older person? Why not someone who’d lived a full life? Why a child? Anger is what goes with that question; the outrage, the sense of injustice, the unfairness. Sometimes your client will come up with anger. Then you can invite him to say more about the anger. And you can validate it, support it.

Another thing we can do is say, “Talk about the lost hopes and dreams.” Lost hopes and dreams are about being cheated because those hopes and dreams can’t be fulfilled now that this death and this loss has occurred. There’s a sense of feeling cheated about that. Another thing I may do to draw anger is to design a statement for my client to repeat. I may design a why question or a blaming statement.

For example in the case of an abusive parent, in working with loss of parental caring and closeness, I may suggest the statement, “You didn’t care about anyone but yourself. You didn’t care about me, all you cared about was the bottle.” Try on that statement. I may say it without any affect in my voice.

You can tailor a statement, invite your client to repeat it, and then reach for a feeling. “What’s it like saying that? Does that fit? What feelings come up when you say that? What choice words do you have for this man?” Go for choice words or strong words, if your client has them in his vocabulary. For the type of client that has choice words available to him, ask him what some choice words may be. The passive client may not have choice words in his vocabulary. Some of these words could possibly be very coarse and powerful.

We are facilitating the expression of emotion through name-calling, I’m talking here about the client who has been severely abused, mistreated. We need to have a way to vent that anger in a therapeutic setting, not face to face with the abuser. So you don’t really want to escalate it but you want to allow this person to feel that it’s okay to feel angry.

Sometimes anger is directed toward the counselor as a defense. When a client becomes very resistant and begins to struggle with the counselor, we can say, “So I wonder if hanging on to the struggle is a way of not getting on with your healing.” When he acknowledges this, direct him, “Now talk about what’s behind the struggle, talk about what’s hard to talk about, what’s hard to face.”


When I’m starting to bring out anger and sadness with a client, I may also say, “I wonder if you’re using that anger to defend against another feeling.” Or “I wonder if that anger is easier than the sadness.” Or if a client identifies both anger and sadness I’ll say, “Which of those two feelings is easier for you to express?”

She may have identified anger as a primary feeling, and I may reach for a little sadness. She may have owned a little sadness, and then I would say, “Which one is easier for you to feel?” And whichever one she chooses I’ll invite her to talk about the opposite one because it’s the one she doesn’t want to talk about that needs to be worked through. The key to a person’s progress is to invite him to explore and integrate whatever is most difficult.

Other ways to get to sadness is to say the following:

“Say his name.” The name of the loved one may be loaded with sadness and remains unspoken until you invite it.

“Talk about a happy memory.” The happy memory brings up a sense of loss and sadness.

“Talk about the last time you saw him.” The last memory may be of the death or of regrets and sadness about this.

“What do you see as your talk? It’s as if you are looking at something.” Tapping into mental images may be associated with sadness because the past is being re-lived in the present.

“You will never see his face again.” The realization about the finality of the death is often very sad but true.

“Have you said good-bye to him?” This brings up sadness about the finality of the loss and can be key to letting go.

While observing the client’s emotional response, take note of keywords and phrases immediately preceding the sadness, then repeat these words at an opportune time to facilitate grief. For example, a client grieves when describing how her son was killed by a “power truck.” Later, I simply said, “There was a power truck,” and the client cried.

Remember to always process the process after a client has finished crying, by saying, “What’s its like talking about this and feeling these things? Is it OK to cry?” And if she says it hurts so much say, “It’s normal to feel that with what you’ve been through. You loved him.”


Guilt is one of the primary reasons that people develop very maladaptive behaviours. A person who feels very guilty doesn’t believe that he deserves happiness, and so what does he think he think he deserves? Punishment. Punishment goes with guilt, so I may want to explore with the person how much guilt he feels? Maybe a little bit, a lot? This is the same technique I may use exploring any feeling. How much anger do you feel? A little bit, a lot, a medium amount? I want to gauge how much of that feeling they are aware of inside.

If they feel a lot of guilt, or they identify a feeling of guilt I’m going to say, “I wonder if you’re aware of how you may be punishing yourself.”

And then I’ll say what some people do. “Sometimes when people feel guilty they won’t let themselves be happy, they’ll be depressed, they’ll be stuck in their life. They won’t let themselves get on with their life. They won’t let themselves experience enjoyment, they won’t let themselves be close to people, they won’t let themselves really welcome the challenges and opportunities that life has to offer. And I wonder if you’re aware of how you may be punishing yourself in some small way?”

A helpful approach is to use exaggeration: “I wonder if you will give yourself a life sentence.” When the client considers this, they have a chance to realize what he may have done and decide to let go of the self-punishment. “What will you do differently? Can you let go of that?” and “What would (your loved one) say?”

Use of minimizing and exaggeration

So again use that minimizing technique, because it’s easier for people to think of small ways sometimes and then that opens up other areas of awareness. So a person will choose and then I’ll say, “I wonder if you’re going to give yourself a life sentence?” That’s making use of exaggeration. In other words, take that metaphor to its ultimate conclusion, or to it’s extreme, which could be something like a life sentence of punishment by means of depression. For example, I had a client who lived a rebellious life, and then his mother suddenly died of a heart attack. He blamed himself for his mother’s death and he became chronically depressed after that for a number of years. When I saw him in treatment I explored the guilt with him, and I said, “I wonder how you may punish yourself? I wonder if maybe depression is a way you may do that?” And he acknowledged it. And he went on saying that he didn’t deserve to be happy. He felt that his life style was a cause of his mother’s death. And so I said, “I wonder if you’re going to give yourself a life sentence?” And he stopped and the wheels were turning and he made a new decision. He pulled back from the guilt.

With the extreme conclusion or exaggeration intervention, a person will pull back from the exaggerated possibility. He’ll say, “No, I’m not going to take it to that extent.” This client started making real changes, real improvements in his direction. When people feel really guilty, they won’t allow themselves to get on with their grieving. They’ll remain stuck in it, and that’s their unconscious form of punishment.

Hanging on or letting go

Sometimes people won’t let themselves work through their sadness and their anger, or other painful feelings, because hanging on to the guilt is a way of hanging on to the person who died. Sometimes I’ll put it to a client that way. I’ll say, “I wonder if hanging on to that guilt may be a way of hanging on to Mom?” And some times they don’t realize it, they haven’t thought of it in those terms. When you put it that way it helps them to decide not to hang on.

I’ve heard clients say that: “I don’t want to hang on any more.” That implies letting go of the guilt. You can use that with anger: “I wonder if hanging on to that anger is a way of hanging on to the man you divorced? Hanging on to the fight may be a way of hanging on to your ex-husband. Hanging on to the fight may be a way of hanging on to Dad.”

You can move people forward by saying, “It’s not easy to let go. It’s not something you need to hurry.” What you often hear is, “How do you let go?” and I say, “By doing exactly what you’re doing today. Talking about your feelings, putting it into words, by doing exactly what you’re doing and I encourage you to keep doing that. What’s it like doing that today, talking about your pain?” And they’ll say, “It’s tough.”

I mentioned earlier that some people use anger to cover sadness and others use sadness to cover anger. So sadness is not necessarily the core feeling, although often for the person who’s very angry, it’s important for him to get to his sadness.

For the person who’s very sad, especially if he appears to be stuck in sadness over a long period of time, weeks, months, or maybe years, maybe it’s because it’s because he hasn’t dealt with the anger, or he hasn’t dealt with the guilt, or both.


So then we come to emptiness. Emptiness is something a person may feel constantly. But sometimes a person will fill the emptiness, or attempt to fill that empty feeling or that void with the other painful feelings. It’s easier to feel anger than that agonizing emptiness or that sense of the void, that abandonment, that loneliness.

Sometimes, early on in grief counseling, that person may identify feeling empty, and the way I may work with that is to say, “What goes into that emptiness? Would it be empty sad, empty angry, empty frightened, empty guilty, empty what?” I’ll associate another feeling with the emptiness.

And I may work with the emptiness on its own, and just invite the person to talk about the emptiness. She may talk about a loved one she lost, who had been in her life at the dinner table, or in bed beside her if it’s a partner, a spouse. The spouse came to the door at the same time on schedule for so many years, and now that person is gone and so there are empty spaces at the table, in the bedroom, at the door.

When a child dies there is tremendous emptiness because that child has occupied so much of the parents’ time, and has contributed so much to the noise level. The child leaves a deafening silence that’s very agonizing. We need to help a person identify what the emptiness is about and then validate that.

Now the emptiness may become more apparent to a person as she gets support and is able to put these other painful feelings, the anger or sadness, into words. As she’s letting go of that anger or sadness, the emptiness may still be there and it may be even more obvious to the person. And most especially, I find that clients report feeling empty when I invite them to talk about letting go or saying goodbye to the loved one.

For example, I sometimes use the empty chair to invite a person to talk to a loved one about saying goodbye, and I then explore the feelings that he’s left with. I say, “What’s it like, what are you feeling inside as you say goodbye and as you talk about saying goodbye to your father or your child? What feelings come up? Fear, anger, guilt, emptiness, despair?” And nine times out of ten they choose emptiness because that’s what’s left if you’re going to say goodbye to somebody.

Now if a person has done a fair amount of grieving, I’ll work with that emptiness in a therapeutic way by saying, “Maybe you’re at a kind of crossroads in your grief. You can either fill that emptiness with the old pain, your old ways of being stuck and not getting on with your life, not letting yourself be close to other people, or you can begin to fill that emptiness with the challenges that life has to offer, taking risks to get close, allowing yourself to enjoy pleasurable experiences in life. Which way do you think you’ll go on this crossroad?”

That’s a cognitive technique that allows clients to make a conscious decision about what they’re going to do or which way they’re going to go. This is transition toward reconstruction of life and saying hello to new people and experiences.

Seeing the hidden loss

If there was emotional distance, a loss of bonding, or if the lost person was experienced as angry, the grief may be buried and be more about the loss of closeness when the person was alive or prior to the loss.

A woman married a man who disclosed to her after two or three years of marriage that he was homosexual, and then he ended the relationship. She didn’t appear to go through any grieving process at all when it actually ended. She went back to work the next day and two months later she met another man. She got married and had kids, and I’m not aware of her going through much grief. Why? Because the marriage was the loss not the ending of the marriage. She grieved when she first learned he was gay; she was angry, sad; felt guilt, low self-worth, emptiness.

Grief will only be experienced as an intense kind of experience if there’s been bonding. If there hasn’t been significant emotional bonding, it’s not as much of a loss. If he was homosexual it’s understandable that there may not have been much intimacy, or closeness, or bonding. It may have been some other kind of relationship, more like a brother and sister rather than husband and wife. So it has to do with how much is invested.

A woman came up to me after a talk I had given and said that when her mother died she didn’t grieve. And she wanted to know why, because other people grieve. She wondered why she wasn’t upset. I asked her, “Were you close to your mother?” and she said “No.” She had never been close all those years. And I said, “I wonder what feelings come up inside you when you think about all those years of not being close to your mother?” That’s when the tears welled up in her eyes. That’s what her grief was about. It wasn’t about her mother’s death. It was about the loss of closeness during her lifetime.

Low self-worth

A person may feel low self-worth, especially if he is experiencing feelings of guilt, because when a person feels very guilty he doesn’t feel worthwhile, he doesn’t feel he deserves to go on living.

A person may also experience low self-worth if he comes from a dysfunctional family and now has experienced a tragic death of a loved one. He may feel as though he didn’t really deserve to have that person be alive for him. Low self-worth sometimes happens when people bargain, for example with God, over the life of the person who died. So you may hear about a person saying, “I’m really the one who should die. Don’t let that child die. Take me, God.” So in that kind of bargaining the implied message is, “I’m not as worthwhile as the child.” A person may then become very depressed, and isolate or deprive himself of enjoyment in life because he doesn’t feel worthwhile or deserving.

In cases of sexual abuse, low self-worth is connected to shame or to feeling dirty. What do you do with something if it’s dirty or worthless? You throw it away. That’s another kind of loss that we haven’t yet talked about. Sexual abuse and assault is a very significant loss. Feeling dirty or feeling shame is closely related to that and leads to self-abuse by choosing unhealthy relationships and lifestyle or behaviours that distance from others, such as obesity or aggression.


Despair and hopelessness are the sum total of these other painful feelings, and as a person is engaging in the grief process and getting support and validation, often that despair will diminish. The despair may appear early on along with fear, but as the safety of the counseling relationship increases and the therapeutic alliance improves, despair sometimes diminishes along with the fear.

Despair often goes with confusion. A person may have a lot of painful feelings inside that he hasn’t identified, especially early in the grief process. He feels despair because he has the intensity of all that pain but he hasn’t been able to sort it out. So as you work with him throughout the process and identify the distinct feelings and help him work through them, the confusion and the despair diminish.

Prior loss affecting a current loss

If a person has suffered significant losses throughout her lifetime, is the coping process easier for her? It depends on how she has dealt with those previous losses. If she has coped with her previous losses in an unhealthy way by burying feelings, or by dumping feelings, or by distancing herself from others, that can become a pattern.

For example, some people won’t say goodbye; they’ll just leave and you’ll wonder where they went. And it may be that that’s related to their style of hanging on or their style of dealing with loss and separation from an earlier experience in life. Sometimes when a person experiences a tragic loss it will bring up their previous losses. And if there seems to be difficulty establishing and maintaining intimate relationships and getting on with life goals, it may be due to unfinished business with a previous loss.


Source by Daniel Keeran

How Profitable is the Pressure Washing Business?


The Power Washing Business is a lucrative business that most anyone can start and make a honest living. The start-up capital required is low and there isn’t expensive overhead required to keep your business running. In many areas there is low competition and high demand for both residential and commercial work.

You may have noticed how competitive the landscaping business is in your area. Everyone seems to be driving around a landscaping truck with a lawn mower in the back these days. How often do you see a pressure washing company in your area? The reason being, pressure washing is more of a niche business that most people aren’t knowledgeable about.

A question, commonly asked by people interested in starting their own pressure

washing business is, “How much money can I make running my own pressure washing business?”

Of course this depends on what the demand is in their area and how much work they are willing to put into marketing their business, but here are some numbers that will give you an idea of the profitability:

The average price you can charge to wash a single story house is $350-$450 dollars. Most single story residences on average will take 6 hours of work to accomplish. Often the homeowner will want other things pressure washed or cleaned such as the driveway, roof, fence, area around the pool, etc.

You can charge $100-$150 dollars more for each additional thing they want pressure washed. It’s not uncommon to make $650 dollars for washing a single story house and the fence area, or maybe the house and driveway together.

The commercial side of the business has even higher profit margins. There are a wide range of jobs that have high returns such as cleaning apartment complexes, fleet washing, and parking lots.

A strong desire to succeed along with an effective marketing plan is the key running your own power washing business, and earning a stable, long-term income.


Source by Daniel Wessony

8 Reasons Why You Should Choose Inflatable Boats!


When speak about the advantages of inflatable boats, it just can’t be finished within 10 pages. Believe me, inflatable boats just have their unique advantages over those traditional boats. I have shortened and categorized the advantages of inflatable boats into 8 categories, which are:

Advantage No.1: Flexible

As known, the very first advantage of inflatable boats is their flexibility. What I mean here is inflatable boats could be deflated and kept in your private car boot. You can bring inflatable boats with you wherever you go. They just do not need boat trailers or huge truck to be transported.

Besides transportation issue, the convenience of inflatable boats brings no headache to storage issue as well. After being deflated and folded nicely, inflatable boats just size like a stack of clothes.

Whenever you need inflatable boats, you can just take out straight from your car boot. Inflating them with a foot pump just take around 30 minutes (maximum) and if you are using an electric pump, 15 minutes (maximum) is what you need to enjoy boating.

Advantage No.2: Stable

Inflatable boats are built with 2 large buoyancy tubes on the side and a flat floor in between of them. The large size buoyancy tubes provide a low center of gravity for the boats as well. These designs make inflatable boats sit flat on the water surface, making inflatable boats almost impossible to flip over.

For example, 435ps paddle ski from sea eagle give ultimate stability. Comparing with normal paddle canoe, it is mush more stable due to the two separate buoyancy tubes on two different sides. The features of inflatable boats just best suit those who like to stand up fishing and those scuba divers who need to flip backward to the water, as well as pulling up themselves from water.

Advantage No.3: Large Loading Capacity

Due to the designs of large buoyancy tubes, the loading of inflatable boats could be huge. Together with the stable attribution, inflatable boats just could upload a large loading of cargo or person without any unsteadiness.

For example, Sea Eagle 12.6 SR, a runabout boat with exterior dimension 12’6″ x 5’4″ just can be loaded with as much as 6 adults or 1600lbs. Inflatable boats just give a higher loading capacity.

Advantage No.4: Inflatable Boats Light As Air

Although the loading capacity of inflatable boats is huge, that doesn’t mean inflatable boats are heavy. The fabrics that produce inflatable boats are very light in weight.

For Sea Eagle inflatable dinghy, SE 9, it is only weight 38lbs for the boat and 74lbs for boat, floorboard and motor mount(For your info, SE 9 could be loaded with 1200lbs or 5 adults).Using the comparison of as light as air in inflatable boats is no over-exaggerated.

The light weight of inflatable boats makes inflatable boats launch easier. Only 2 adults are needed to carry out the inflatable boat from water after using. The light weight of inflatable boats just makes people love inflatable boats more.

Advantage No.5: All-In-One Function

Inflatable boats are designed for all-in-one purpose. No matter you want to rapid, paddle, sail, row, or even cruise, inflatable boats just can transform into the boat you want.

You might just be inspired by Sea Eagle explorer 380x kayak, which can cut through those rough, class 4 white water. Sail cat 15sc which looks like an inflatable sailing raft just provide you the ultimate all-in-one function. Combining with an electrical trolling motor, an evening cruise just await you outside.

Advantage No.6: Strong And Durable

Many years of enjoyment is what inflatable boats meant to be as an inflatable boat is ready only after a serial of experiments and trials. Inflatable boats could not be pushed to the market without gone through many quality controls.

With those quality controls and the fine materials, inflatable boats are strong and durable. Building with 1000 Denier Reinforced material, Sea Eagle inflatable boats are simply the best. The plastic coated transom in Sea Eagle inflatable boats keeps the transom secure from the damaging effect of water seepage.

Advantage No.7: Economical Boats

Inflatable boats are economical boats. Aside from the lower price of the boat itself, the maintenance fee of inflatable boats is equally low.

Example gas-consuming, as inflatable boats are very light in weight, less power is needed to move the boats. Less power means less gas consuming. Besides, the resale of inflatable boats is easy and with good residual prices as well.

Advantage No.8: 3-Year Warranty And 30 Days On-Water-Trial

On top of these advantages, Sea Eagle just offers 3 years warranty and 30 days on-water-trial for all Sea Eagle inflatable boats.

You can get a full product refund if you are unsatisfied in any way within 30 days from the date of delivery. Use sea eagle inflatable boats on water and ask for refund if you are not satisfied. Besides, 3 year warranty just allows you to send back your inflatable boats for free repair or no-charge replacement. It is indeed secure with sea eagle inflatable boats.

There are actually a lot more advantages of inflatable boats, but I think it’s time for you to find out yourself. Until then it’s your turn to talk about your inflatable boats. 🙂


Source by Daren Shawn

Cheap Auto Insurance Quotes – Tips For Getting The Lowest Rate


Finding auto insurance quotes online is easy, but finding the cheapest auto insurance rates can be more of a challenge. To get the lowest quotes, follow these tips to help you find ways to trim possibly hundreds off your auto insurance quotes.

1. Give them details – If you don’t provide information about your zip code, marital status, car’s safety features, and annual commuting miles, by default insurance companies will quote you a higher auto insurance rate. Provide as much detail as possible to make sure you get each discount that you qualify for.

2. Shop around – Auto insurance rates can vary as much as 300% between companies for the same coverage. You can save hundreds of dollars a year by comparing prices between companies. Don’t forget to check out your current insurance company, they may have lower rates for new customers that you may be able to negotiate for yourself.

3. Raise your deductible – Higher deductibles equal lower insurance premiums. For example, increasing your deductible from $250 to $500, can save you a hundred dollars or more on your annual premium. However, plan on having additional financial resources to cover the deductible in case of an accident.

4. Cut the miles you drive – For drivers who travel on average 40 miles or less a day, they qualify for a low mileage discount with most insurance companies. Consider carpooling or taking public transit a couple of days a week to reduce your car’s mileage to qualify for the discount. By flying or taking a train for vacations instead of driving, you can further reduce the miles on your car.

5. Switch drivers – For married couples, compare insurance quotes between the male as the main driver and the female as the main driver. You may get a lower quote if the female is insured on a truck and the male is insured on the minivan. Teens should also be insured on safer cars such as the family sedan, rather than a sports car.

6. Add an anti-theft device – By installing car alarms or a tracking system in your car, you will get a discount from auto insurance companies. Since anti-theft devices reduce the risk of your car being stolen, insurance companies pass on the savings to you. A certified defensive-driving class can also reduce your premium for three years with most insurance companies.


Source by Carrie Reeder

What to Look For in an Aftermarket Racing Seat


If you are truly looking to style up car, truck or SUV, then a good custom seat is a logical upgrade. There are many aftermarket companies out there that produce quality racing seats for either road or track use. Prices can vary from a few hundred dollars to several thousand dollars for a seat depending on your taste and the size of your bankroll.

Beside the bling effect of having some sweet looking racing seats in your vehicle there are some performance benefits. Because racing seats are made out of lighter materials than your factory seats they reduce the overall weight of your vehicle which is always a positive for tuning.

Racing Seats are universal for all vehicles; however, each seat will need to latch to a seat rail, which is car specific. Companies such as Bride and Recaro make racing seat rails especially designed for particular car models, or otherwise you can customize your stock one to fit an aftermarket racing seat. There are two types of racing seats. The first is a side mount, which uses brackets that are installed to the floor and to the side of the seat. The second type is one that sits on top of rails and bolt in from the bottom. You simply unbolt your factory seats and bolt the new rails in place without any other modifications. If you plan on using a racing seat with another company’s seat rail, make sure that it is compatible before you waste your money and time.

The next thing to consider is your restraining device. Will you factory seat belts work or do you need to upgrade to a racing harness. If you’re new racing seats have wide lateral support areas your factory seat belts might not be able to securely keep you in place coming out of that turn.. However, in most applications, your factory seats belt will do just fine. An alternative and really the icing on the cake are to install a four or five point racing harness. You have already shelled out good money for an expensive racing seat; you might as well finish off the desired look by having a colorful racing harness draped over your seat.

If you own a 2 door vehicle with a back seat you should also check with your local DMV to determine if you need to have at least one seat that can recline forward. Some states do have laws on the books for this so again you don’t want to spend your hard earned money and then have Johnny Law site you for a fix it ticket.

Finally, the last thing to consider when purchasing your racing seats is the comfort level. Remember that depending on what your vehicle is used for, daily driver or weekend track car, you will be spending a lot of time in the seat. The last thing you want is to be uncomfortable. Try seating in as many racing seats as possible since all racing seats are not made equal. A fixed back racing seat will not give you as many options as a reclinable racing seat does. If your vehicle is going to be used as a daily driver then a reclinable seat might be in your best interest.


Source by Todd A Schafer

Why a Natural Leather Chamois Is Still the Best and Safest Car Drying Cloth


Natural leather chamois’ have been used to dry vehicles and glass since the early 1700s where they were used by French “footman” responsible for the care and cleaning of carriages. They are no less effective or useful today for drying modern vehicle finishes and windscreens. Natural chamois cloths have been, and continue to be, used because they are durable, extremely soft, remove dirt and trap in the cloth away from the surface, and release dirt effectively when rinsed. And although many products have been introduced in recent years as better or less expensive substitutes for the chamois, none have the combination of these characteristics that make the natural leather chamois so useful and effective.

What is a Natural Leather Chamois?

A chamois, like any leather product, can last for years with proper care. A genuine leather chamois cloth is defined by the National Standards Body in the UK (British Standard BS 6715: 1991) and, in America, by the United States Federal Standard (CS99-1970) as “flesh split of the sheep or lambskin tanned solely with oils”; typically fish oils. Although they may be tanned in many different countries, the best chamois’ hides come from New Zealand. However, because they may be tanned in some other country, many chamois cloths that originate in New Zealand are labeled as “made in” or “product of” some other country; this is a result of the regulations that govern labeling. A genuine leather chamois will have a slight fish oil smell and will fade if left in direct sunlight.

The Softness of Chamois Leather

Chamois leather is one of the softest materials available for drying a car or truck. Like the chamois skin the original cloths were made from, sheep or lamb skin has a naturally open fiber structure. The open fiber structure has spaces or voids between the fibers that, combined with the frayed fiber ends, give a chamois leather its softness. When tanned with fish oils, soaps form in the loose weave of the fiber of the leather. These soaps give the cloth a slick feel when wet and create a “buffer” layer between the body of the chamois and the surface of the vehicle. It is the same fish oils that make it extremely absorbent and durable.

Although a genuine leather chamois will become stiff when dry, it may be re-softened by rewetting the cloth. To re-soften a chamois without wetting it, simply rub it against itself or grip it on either side and drawing it across the edge of a hard clean surface

Natural Chamois Nap

The spaces naturally created by the loose weave of the sheepskin and the frayed ends of the fibers that stick out from the weave create the “nap” or pile of a chamois. Nap is what gives a material a soft feeling and provides the pockets in the material that dirt and grit are pulled into and trapped. The natural nap of a chamois, and the soaps created by the tanning process, are what traps and retains dirt grit and water in a leather chamois. A large degree of nap is essential to any car drying product to keep from scratching or marring the finish. The advantage a natural leather chamois has over synthetic materials is that it not only traps the dirt, grit and water, but then releases the abrasive material when rinsed. Many synthetics are good at trapping dirt and grit, but then do not effectively release them when rinsed; causing the material to become increasingly abrasive over time.

Chamois Leather is Extremely Absorbent

A quality natural leather chamois will hold, on average, more than 5 times its own weight in water, while retaining the ability to be easily rinsed and wrung out. A 20oz cloth will hold 0.8 gallons of water. The loose weave of the fiber in leather chamois will not only release more dirt and grit than synthetic products, but will also release more water when rung out, making it an ideal material for drying a car.

Chamois as a Renewable Resource

In addition to being soft, absorbent and durable, a natural sheepskin chamois is organic and a natural byproduct of the sheep farming industry. In addition to providing a large percentage of the world’s food and natural fiber (in the form of wool) production, Sheep farming also produces numerous essential byproducts such as lanolin, tallow, gelatin and leather, to name a few. It is a renewable and sustainable resource that has been an essential part of the world economy for several millennium and promises to remain so for the foreseeable future.


Because of its natural properties, a leather chamois remains the most cost effective, safe and efficient product available for drying a car today. Although many newer materials and products have been introduced since Chamois first came into use in the early 1700’s, none have the unique combination of properties that make the chamois ideal for drying vehicles; And all, but the most recently introduced, have eventually fallen into disuse.

Properly maintained, a natural leather chamois can last for years. They are also extremely absorbent and cut down on drying time. Natural chamois cloths are extremely soft, especially when wetted, and protect the finish being dried with both soaps infused into the open fibers during the tanning process and by trapping dirt and grit away from the surface in the naturally occurring nap. So regardless of the numerous new products that are continuously made available for drying a car, a natural leather chamois is still the Best and Safest Car Drying Cloth.


Source by Brian T Cooper

Basic Knowledge and Skills Needed in Fire Fighting Using Fire Extinguishers


Fire fighting is not easy. It is the kind of job filled with hazards. Getting inside a burning building to save a person trapped may be heroic but it is not as easy as it looks. There is a great chance that you too can suffocate from the fumes. You also have chances of getting burned or injured in the process. It takes a lot of skills and abilities to become a fire fighter. There is a calling for proper training and conditioning of the body. One has to be agile, smart and dedicated, to do this job professionally.

Since not all of us are enthusiastic with the job description of a firefighter, we all have an opportunity to become fire fighters ourselves. A simple reading about fire and fighting it can be done overnight. You can become a master by going through special modules and achieve foundation in order to deal with uncontrollable fire. After you have gone through the different information, you can fight fire only if you are sure of what you are doing. In addition, you get to be one without wearing the red suit and riding on the fire truck. Your primary tool is just the different types of types of fire extinguishers.

Doing fire fighting can be done in cases of emergency. If there is a simple outbreak of fire, you can stop the flames on your own without calling for help, if you think you know how. To be well equipped in cases where the need arises for fire fighting, you need to do the following items:

1. You need to understand how fire works and how it starts. To have a simple explanation about it, all you have to do is to read about the fire tetrahedron.

2. Understand the jargons used in firefighting. Just like computers, they have their own universal language. They have their own signs and symbols used. Therefore, it is important to learn these things to identify special instructions on devices used readily. This will also help you understand the safety precautions needed to be applied in case you want to face the problem on your own.

3. You also have to know the different classifications of fire. This way you will know what can be the possible sources. This is part of your assessment. You also have to check on the surroundings and know what other sources that could worsen the fire. This way you can prevent it from getting contact with the flames.

4. It is also important for you to know the different types of fire extinguisher because they have different indications. They also have different agents used. Therefore, to eliminate unwanted fire effectively, you need to be extra careful on the extinguisher used. Sometimes, a wrong agent used can lead to re-ignition of flames.

5. You also have to learn how to use the device. They have a special code for which is an acronym: P-A-S-S. This stands for pull, aim, squeeze and sweep. It is a very simple instruction that could get you fire fighting in no time.


Source by Brian Ayling

Mobsters in America – Charlie "The Bug" Workman – The Man Who Killed Dutch Schultz


Charlie “The Bug” Workman was the strong silent type, who killed as many as 20 people for Louie “Lepke” Buchalter’s Murder Incorporated. But Workman’s claim to fame was being the man who shot Dutch Schultz to death.

Charles Workman was born on the Lower East Side of Manhattan in 1908, the second of six children born to Samuel and Anna Workman. Workman quit school in the 9th grade, and began roaming the streets of the Lower East Side, looking for trouble. When he was 18, Workman was arrested for the first time, for stealing a $12 bundle of cotton thread from a truck parked on Broadway. Since it was his first offense, Workman got of with simple probation. The following year Workman was arrested for shooting a man behind the ear over who-owed-who $20. By this time, Workman’s reputation on the streets was such, the man he shot refused to testify against him, and even said he couldn’t truthfully identify Workman as the shooter. Miffed, the cops pulled up his file and decided Workman had violated his parole on the cotton theft. As a result, Workman was sent to the New York State Reformatory. For the next few years, Workman was in and out of prison, for such parole violations as associating with “questionable characters” and failure to get a job.

In 1926, Workman hooked on as a freelance leg breaker, or schlammer, for Lepke’s union strike breaking activities. Workman did such a good job, Lepke put him on his permanent payroll at $125 a week, as a killer for Lepke’s Murder Incorporated. Lepke liked Workman’s cool demeanor, and after Workman performed a few exceptional “hits” for Lepke, Lepke gave him the nickname “The Bug,” because a person had to be crazy to kill with the calm detachment Workman displayed when performing his gruesome duties. Workman’s other nickname “Handsome Charlie,” was given to him by members of the opposite sex.

For the next few years Workman was in and out of trouble with the law. In 1932, he was arrested for carrying a concealed weapon. In 1933, he was arrested again for decking an off-duty police officer after a minor traffic dust-up. All the while, his specialty was killing whomever Lepke said needed to be killed. After a hit was done, Workman enjoyed the fringe benefit of “sweeping out the pockets” of his victims. Most of the times, Workman earned himself an extra thousand dollars or so for his efforts, and one time he even found a ten thousand dollar bonus in the pants pocket of some poor sucker he had just whacked.

In 1935, orders came down from up top that maniac gangster Dutch Schultz had to go. Lepke decided that Workman was the man for the job. On Oct. 23, 1935, Lepke sent Workman and Lepke’s second-in-charge Mendy Weiss to the Palace Chophouse in Newark, New Jersey, in a car driven by a man known as “Piggy.” While Weiss stood near the bar, Workman walked into the men’s room to make sure there would be no witnesses. Standing in the men’s room was a startled Dutch Schultz. Workman plugged Schultz once in the torso, piercing his stomach, large intestine, gall badder and liver. Workman then exited the bathroom, and he and Weiss entered the back room of the restaurant, where three of Schultz’ henchmen, Lulu Rosencrantz, Abe Landau and Abbadabba Berman, were enjoying their last supper together. Weiss and Workmen kept shooting until their guns were empty, and their prey were dead on the floor.

Weiss headed for the front door, but Workman turned and headed back to the bathroom, expecting to find a big bundle of cash in Schultz’ pockets. The first surprise for Workman was when he found not a dime in Schultz’ possession. The second surprise was when he walked outside expecting to find Weiss and Piggy in a waiting getaway car, and found nothing, except the sound of police sirens hurrying to the scene.

Workman sprinted into a swamp behind the chophouse, where he dumped his blood-stained overcoat, and started hiking in the direction of Manhattan, his shoes and pants wet, and smoke coming out of his ears, at the thought of being left for dead after an important hit. Workman found a set of railroad tracks and followed them all night long. The tracks led to a tunnel that went under the Hudson River, and Workman emerged at the break of dawn in downtown Manhattan. He went to a Lower East Side coffee shop, favored by thugs like him, and was mortified when he discovered the Scultz killing was all over the newspapers, and the word on the street, was that Weiss was the lone shooter.

Workman went to a friend’s house in Chelsea for a few hours of sleep, and when he woke up, he phoned Lepke and said he wanted to kill Weiss, for ditching him after the Scultz hit. Lepke called for a sit-down a few days later at Weiss’ home at 400 Ocean Avenue in Brooklyn. Workman told his tale first. When it was Weiss turn to defend himself he said, “I claim hitting the Dutchman was mob business. And I stayed until hitting the Dutch was over. But then the Bug went back in the toilet to give the Dutchman a heist. I claim that was not mob business anymore. It was personal business.”

Lepke ruled in favor of Weiss and told Workman, if he were smart, he’d drop the matter completely and never mention it again, under the treat of maybe getting hit himself. Lepke sent Workman to Miami to cool off, and there Workman met Lucky Luciano, who was part of a nine-man National Crime Syndicate, along with Lepke. Workman need to borrow some cash to lay low, and when he started to mention Weiss’ actions on the night of the Schultz hit, Luciano cut him off, saying, “Here’s the money. Now stop talking about that other thing.”

In 1940, Workman was arrested in Brighton Beach on a change of “vagrancy.” Workman’s pinch was orchestrated by Special Prosecutor Thomas E. Dewey, who was on a mission to arrest, try, convict and execute every member of Murder Incorporated he could get his hands on. By this time Murder Incorporated killer Abe “Kid Twist” Reles had already turned rat, and had told Dewey that Workman had done the Schultz job. This was confirmed by Allie Tannenbaum, maybe Workman’s closest friend in the mob, who had also turned canary.

In 1941, Workman was tried for the Scultz murder. During the trail, when Workman realized he had little chance of acquittal, he changed his plea to “no defense.” Judge Daniel Brennan accepted the plea and sentenced Workman to life in prison.

As Workman was being led from the courtroom, the guards let him speak with his brother Abe. Workman told Abe, “Whatever you do, live honestly. If you make 20 cents a day, make it do for you. If you can’t make an honest living, make the government support you. Keep away from the gangs and don’t be a wise guy. Take care of Mama and Papa and watch ‘Itchy'( his younger brother). He needs watching.”

Workman was sent to Trenton State Prison. In 1942, Workman offered his services to the United States Navy to go on a suicide mission to hit Japan and avenge Pearl Harbor. His request was denied. In 1952, Workman was transferred to Rahway State Prison Farm and he worked there at hard labor until he was paroled in 1964, after almost 23 years in prison. After his release, Workman went straight, getting a job as a salesman in the Garment Center, which was once ruled by his boss Lepke.


Source by Joseph Bruno

Automobile Accident Litigation: Overturning the Unfavorable Police Report


Introduction: The Police Report is against your client. Now what? Over the last sixteen years of practicing personal injury and automobile accident law, it has been our experience that the quality of traffic accident investigations has steadily declined, leaving many injured people further harmed by a poor or incomplete police report. The reasons are as follows: government budget issues, poor police officer training, and a lack of commitment to performing a complete accident investigation. Certain well meaning police officers are just not qualified to investigate a complicated catastrophic car, truck or pedestrian injury or death case.

If the police report is against your client an insurance adjuster may not want to make a reasonable settlement offer. As a result the case may be difficult to resolve in a positive way for an injured client. A lawsuit may need to be filed and depositions of the witnesses, drivers, and investigating police officers taken to rebut the police report’s conclusion. If the facts can be developed, it is the attorney’s job to show the insurance adjuster, a judge or jury that the police officer got it wrong.

As we unpack the issues involved in overturning the unfavorable police report we will be discussing the following topics:

A. What is a Traffic Collision Report?

B. Who Has Standing to Obtain a Copy of the Traffic Collision Report?

C. Is the Primary Reporting Officer’s Opinion Admissible at Trial?

D. Are the Witness Statements Within a Police Report Admissible at Trial?

E. Proving the Primary Reporting Officer’s Opinion Is Wrong.

A. What is a Traffic Collision Report?

The Traffic Collision Report or CHP 555 is the standard reporting tool for most all police officer traffic investigators in California. It is intended to satisfy the basic data requirement needs of all users of traffic collision information.

The box on page 2 of the CHP 555 identifies the Primary Collision Factor. Primary Collision factor is defined by the CHP as; “PRIMARY COLLISION FACTOR. Select the one element or driving action which in the officer’s opinion, best describes the primary or main cause of the collision. Whenever possible, this should be a Vehicle Code (VC) violation.”

The term Other Associated Factor is defined by the CHP as; “OTHER ASSOCIATED FACTORS(S). When a secondary violation has been determined to have contributed to the collision, write the VC section in the appropriate box.”

B. Who Has Standing to Obtain a Copy of the Traffic Collision Report?

Drivers involved in car accidents are required by statute to file reports with the California Highway Patrol or local police department, Vehicle Code section 20008. People with a “proper interest” can obtain copies of a police report, Vehicle Code section 20012.

The parties involved in the accident or any other persons having a “proper interest” may obtain copies of a police report. This includes persons involved in later accidents at the same location because the reports may disclose highway conditions causing or contributing to their own accident. See, California ex rel. Dept. of Transp. v. Sup.Ct. (Hall), 37 C3d at 855.

C. Is the Primary Reporting Officer’s Opinion Admissible at Trial?

There are two distinctions regarding admissibility. First is the admissibility of the report itself. The second issue is the admissibility of an officer’s ultimate opinion or conclusion. These are both separate and distinct evidentiary issues.

California Vehicle Code section 20013 states, “No such accident report shall be used as evidence in any trial, civil or criminal, arising out of an accident. The rule against admitting police reports into evidence is well established, Fernandez v. Di Salvo Appliance Co, 179 Cal App 2d 240; Summers v. Burdick 191 Cal App 2d 464 at 470. The policy behind Vehicle Code section 20013 is to protect against the danger of the jury giving more weight to the police report’s conclusion simply because of its “official” character. There is a danger that the “official” police report alone may be relied upon to determine the verdict. As a result the contents of a traffic collision report should be excluded. Sherrell v. Kelso 116 Cal App 3d Supp 22 at 31.

However a police officer witness disclosed in conformity with a California Evidence Code section 2034 demand, who also qualifies as an expert witness, with sufficient experience and training, may give an opinion on the factors involved in causing an accident. Hart v. Wielt 4 Cal App 3d 224. In Hart a 13 year veteran of the California Highway Patrol, with extensive training and schooling in accident investigation was allowed to given an opinion on the proper speed given the conditions. The case involved a vehicle which slid out of control while maneuvering a sharp curve on State Highway 32 going towards Chester. Before the officer gave his opinion on speed the trial judge admonished the Jury that it was up to them to make the final determination of a proper speed and also whether or not the CHP officer was qualified as an expert witness.

In the case of Kastner v. Los Angeles Metro. Transit Auth 63 Cal 2d 52, a police officer deemed qualified by reason of his special knowledge, training and experience was allowed to give an opinion on the point of impact between a bus and a pedestrian. The opinion was based almost entirely on a statement given to the officer by the defendant bus driver at the scene. The bus driver testified at trial identical to the statement given to the police officer at the scene. This removed any argument that the officer’s opinion was based on inadmissible hearsay. The Supreme Court in Kastner acknowledged that the trial judge must first determine whether or not the jury is aided by the expert opinion or if the question is within the common experience of an ordinary person, hence and expert’s opinion would not be necessary, see Kastner at page 57.

In summary, the hard copy of the police report itself stays out of evidence. However if the foundation is present for an expert opinion from the police officer, the ultimate opinion in some form may find its way into evidence. But first the offering party must establish the subject of the opinion is sufficiently beyond common experience, the police officer has the appropriate qualifications, and the opinion is based on reliable evidence, see California Evidence Code sections 720 and 801.

D. Are the Witness Statements Within a Police Report Admissible at Trial?

Generally police reports contain statements of plaintiff, defendant, and non-party percipient witnesses. Whether or not these statements are admissible depends on whether or not they are hearsay. California Evidence code section 1200 states, “Hearsay evidence” is evidence of a statement that was made other than by a witness while testifying at the hearing and that is offered to prove the truth of the matter stated.”

What is admissible? Most commonly statements in police reports made by the plaintiff or defendant will come into evidence via an established hearsay exception. Admissions from a plaintiff or defendant are the most commonly relied upon hearsay exceptions, Cal. Evidence Code Sections 1220-1227. Also statements of a non-party percipient witness may come into evidence as impeachment if the witnesses’ statement at trial is shown to be inconsistent with a statement given to the police officer, California Evidence Code section 791.

E. Proving the Primary Reporting Officer’s Opinion Is Wrong.

They key establishing a factual showing that the police officer got it wrong is a complete investigation of the foundation of the officer’s opinion. For accidents in congested urban areas it is common for an investigating officer to only speak to the one or two witnesses who are willing to wait around at the scene and talk to the officer. When a witness sees that other people have come forward to volunteer as witnesses, most people simply leave the scene thinking they are not needed.

Some witnesses that are actually spoken to by a police officer are only spoken to for a short period of time, in an abbreviated manner that leaves out critical details of how the witnesses’ attention was drawn to the accident, what they actually saw versus what they think may have happened. The typical police officer statement is a summary of what was said to the officer. An oral witness statement is noted by an officer in his notebook. These notes are then transferred into the typed up police report. The typical police officer procedure for taking and documenting witness statements is much less reliable than a taped audio recording of a witness. It is important to contact witnesses in the police report to determine the accuracy and foundation for the statements attributed to them by a police officer.

How do you find the witnesses who are not identified in the police report? The keys to finding additional witnesses are as follow: post signs in the surrounding area of the scene; return to the area and ask local store owners for the names of anyone they know may have see the event; look for surveillance videos that may have caught the collision itself on video; and secure the computer aided dispatch (CAD) printouts or audio recordings of the people calling in to report the accident via their cell phones. The CAD records will show the phone numbers for all of the people calling into the 911 dispatch system to report the accident. Many of these callers are good percipient witnesses whose names are not in the police report.

Any good accident investigation is not complete without a thorough accident reconstruction. In pedestrian injury cases a good time distance analysis of what the driver should have seen, at what distance from the point of impact, over what time period may be revealing. With known or estimated driving speeds an expert may be able to back up a driver’s field of view (line of sight) and determine if the driver reasonably had enough time to stop prior to the point of impact. It is extremely rare for an investigating police officer to conduct a time distance / sight line analysis, to determine whether or not a reasonable driver should have avoided the collision. A complete accident reconstruction is expensive. Think about whether or not a complete accident reconstruction is feasible given the damages involved in the case.

Conclusion: When confronted with a police report that is against your client remember the following. A police report is just a summary of the facts taken in an abbreviated manner and collected over a short period of time. Often the report is incomplete, misleading and lacking in factual foundation. If you believe in the case; do not stand down just because the police report is against your client. Conduction your own investigation and make your own determination of the extent of any driver negligence.


Source by Albert Stoll

Old School Skateboards – New Vs Modern Skateboarding Gear


An old school skateboard is very different from the skateboards of today.

Old school skateboards normally refer to skateboards that were popular and used in the past and are not commonly used today. They are sometimes referred as classic skate boards. The term “Old school skateboards” is usually used to refer to any skateboard that dates back to the 1980’s. However, skateboards can be dated as far back as the 1930’s and 40’s.

People are not sure how the first skateboard came about, some argue that the first skateboard was formed when kids with soapboxes from soapbox races would break the soapbox and were just left with the bottom flat board and wheels. Others argue that surfers created the first skateboard by attaching the wheels of roller skates to a piece of flat board in order to ride something when they were not able to surf.

Even though most of the times we refer to old school skateboards as the ones made in the 80’s, remember although there are no definitive origins of where skateboards became popular or where they originated they definitely existed well before the 80’s. Whether it be the 80’s or the 30’s, still there are many differences between the old skateboards and the modern skateboards that kids ride today.

First, the appearances of old school skateboards are very different than the skateboards preferred today. They were less concave. Aerial maneuvers on these skateboards were nearly impossible and required a little bit of ingenuity to get this skill.

Old school skateboards had a small nose and a very large unusually square and flat shaped tail. Unlike old school skate boards, modern skate boards feature a dramatic improvement for aerial maneuvers, they have a large nose and they are slightly larger and wider at the tail than their counterparts. The decks and trucks are narrow and the wheels smaller. This is to improve the ability to Ollie and other skateboarding tricks that they are based on.

Though they are still these types of skateboards in circulation today there numbers have reduced dramatically as companies make skateboards that are market targeted. These skateboards were or are the foundation of better and improved skate boards. The trucks and the wheels have been improved as well as better materials been used in making strong light decks.

The main thing to remember here is that, without old school skate boards they will probably be no modern skate boards.

Find out all kinds of information about all kinds of Skateboarding Gear.


Source by Tiffany Godinez