The Growth and Development of the Automobile Industry – A Deeper Insight


The word “Automobile” has its origins in Greek and Latin and it has become an integral part of every man’s life. It has become so indispensable that on an average, a person spends at least 3 hours in his vehicle every day. Automobile was once thought of as a luxury and only a select few could indulge in. Now, the times have changed and automobiles have become a means of transportation catering to the vast majority.

The transformation from luxury to inevitability

Automobiles, in general, refer to the humble car and the estimates suggest that there is a car for every eleven persons on earth amounting up to 590 million passenger cars. There are various variants of automobiles that cater to every cross section of the population. There are variants that could set you back by a couple of million dollars and other models that cost you a few thousand dollars.

The technological advances in the automobile sector have been tremendous in the last 100 years. The century’s greatest invention or advancement should definitely belong to the automobile industry. One of the earliest pioneers of the automobile Industry was Ransom Olds from the Oldsmobile factory. In the early 1900’s, he introduced the Production Line concept, thus churning out vehicles every few minutes. This idea was greatly revolutionized and implemented by Henry Ford, who elevated automobile industry to the next level. Ford quickly grew in the first half of 20th century and slowly but steadily spread globally.

Growing along with time

With advancement of age, the automobile industry gradually grew in continental Europe and England. Japan introduced quality initiatives that further enhanced the industry. Toyoto from Japan were the pioneers of Total Quality Management and Six Sigma, which have been the guiding principles of the automobile industry for the last 50 years. Today, Toyoto are the world’s biggest automobile company according to recent market estimates.

The global boom of the 1980’s was largely because of the automobile revolution. Ford, General Motors and Chrysler, the big 3 automotive giants of America, had a huge say on the country’s economy. They decided the health of the economy and the recent global economic recession has affected them badly. This has made them approach the government for loans and benefits, which have been fulfilled by the government after placing appropriate clauses.

Advent of technology and innovations

Automobile has transcended from being a medium of transportation to a medium of entertainment after the advent of super fast cars competing against each other. NASCAR and F1 races are huge crowd pullers every year. People have made fortunes and drivers of these machines have made their name in history. The fact that automobile racing involves huge costs has made the racing industry reel in these uncertain economic times. The sport has seen tragedies with loss of life in some instances. This has made room for strict safety regulations, which are now mandatory for all the automobile shows.

The negative part

Although man has made a huge leap forward with automobiles, there is a downside to this technological wonder. The emissions from these machines have raised serious environmental concerns with calls for more eco-friendly vehicles. Automobile companies have invested hugely in research and development of eco-friendly vehicles. Except for this single downside, there is slightest of doubts to say that automobiles have been the find of the previous century.


Source by Brenda Williams

Why Choose TEIN Suspension?


TEIN is one of the biggest and oldest Japanese aftermarket suspension specialist and manufacturer. Since 1985, TEIN has been researching and developing high performance suspension products for both street and race use. Competing and winning many races including the World Rally Championship and Super N1 Endurance Race allowed TEIN to be the pioneer of suspension specialists. The technology knowledge gained from racing, TEIN applied  to their product development to create an ideal suspension for total driving pleasure. That is what makes TEIN products outperform other performance suspension brands  not only in performance, but also in endurance, consistency and most of all quality which makes driving with this exceptional suspension a fulfilling experience.

Which TEIN product should I choose?


S. TECH – TEIN S. TECH LOWERING SPRINGS are an excellent choice for lowering, or as an initial step towards sport suspension tuning. TEIN S. TECH spring features an average drop of 1.5 inch and average increase in spring rate of 20%. This results in a lowered center of gravity, less body roll and pitch, improved roll distribution, and better road holding capability. The lowered car also has a more stylish appearance. Every TEIN S. TECH spring application is road tested for proper balance between performance and comfort. TEIN S. TECH spring is made from Vanadium. TEIN S. TECH springs are more sports oriented than the TEIN HIGH TECH springs. TEIN S. TECH is also called Dress Up Master, and is intended for street use.

H. TECH – TEIN HIGH TECH LOWERING SPRINGS are an excellent choice for lowering, with minimum compromise in comfort and performance. TEIN H. TECH springs feature an average drop of 1.3 inch and average increase in spring rate of 10%. This results in a lowered center of gravity, less body roll and pitch, improved roll distribution, and better road holding capability. The lowered car also has a more stylish appearance. Compared to S. TECH springs, H. TECH springs offer a softer and comfier ride, yet provides better handling than the OEM springs. TEIN H. TECH is also called Luxury Master, and is intended for street use.

G. TECH– TEIN GRAVEL TECH LOWERING SPRINGS were developed for gravel driving, such as off road driving, rallying, and rallycross. TEIN GRAVEL TECH springs were developed in combination with the Type GRAVEL dampers, but can be used with other high performance dampers as well. With a tuned ride height and spring rates for off road driving, TEIN GRAVEL TECH spring is no doubt a competition spring. Compared to TEIN S. TECH and TEIN H. TECH springd, the TEIN GRAVEL TECH springs offer a much stiffer ride and roll distribution suitable for off road driving. TEIN GRAVEL TECH is also called Dirt Trial Master, and is intended for competition use.

Street Coilover Systems

BASIC– TEIN BASIC DAMPER is TEIN’s entry level coilover kit. Compared to OEM suspension, the TEIN BASIC DAMPER features a higher spring rate and stronger damping force. Each application is optimized in which the spring rate is matched to the damper, so under-damping and over-damping will be minimized. The TEIN BASIC DAMPER features adjustable ride height and short stroke dampers. Other features include twin tube shell case, newly designed spring seat, and three stage powder coating. TEIN BASIC DAMPER is the perfect choice for entry level users who want a matched spring and damper set with the optimized damping forces right out of the box. TEIN BASIC DAMPER is also called Driving Master and is intended for street use.

SUPER STREET– TEIN SUPER STREET DAMPER is a step up from TEIN BASIC DAMPERS. Compared to TEIN BASIC DAMPER, the SUPER STREET DAMPER features a similar spring rate, but with a damper that features 16 to 20 levels of damping force adjustments. Similar to the BASIC DAMPER, the SUPER STREET DAMPER also features adjustable ride height and short stroke dampers, as well as twin tube shell case, newly designed spring seat, and three stage powder coating. The 16 to 20 levels of damper force adjustment can be made by simply turning a knob on the top of the damper. With the damping force adjustment ability, users can change the stiffness of the suspension easily according to the driving conditions, for example, soft setting for street driving and stiff setting for track driving, or using different stiffness front to back to fix minor understeer or oversteer. TEIN SUPER STREET DAMPER is also called Driving Master and is intended for street use.

COMFORT SPORT– TEIN COMFORT SPORT is a coilover kit developed with sport and comfort in mind. Compared to OEM suspension, the TEIN COMFORT SPORT features a higher spring rate and stronger damping force, yet with minimum decrease in comfort and quietness. This was accomplished by a carefully chosen spring rate and matched to a mono-tube design damper featuring the Micro Speed Valve Technology. Together, the COMFORT SPORT provides a smooth and luxurious ride with added cornering stability and control. Compared to BASIC and SUPER STREET DAMPER, the TEIN COMFORT SPORT provides a slightly less sporty ride but still provides a great increase in comfort and quietness. TEIN COMFORT SPORT features 16 levels of damping force adjustment, Micro Speed Valve Technology, inverted shell case, ride height adjustment, newly designed spring seat, and mono-tube shell case. TEIN COMFORT SPORT is also called Cruising Master and is intended for street use.

EURO DAMPER– TEIN EURO DAMPER is very similar to TEIN COMFORT SPORT in every way, please read the above section for details. As the name implies, the TEIN EURO DAMPER is designed for European cars. Features and technology are similar to TEIN COMFORT SPORT. TEIN EURO DAMPER is also called Cruising Master and is intended for street use

TYPE FLEX– TEIN TYPE FLEX is a coilover kit developed with performance and comfort in mind. With years of experience in motorsports, TEIN produced TEIN TYPE FLEX to provide the ultimate balance between comfort and performance. Compared to OEM suspension and other entry level coilovers, TEIN TYPE FLEX provides a greater increase in cornering performance, while still being comfortable enough to use on the street. This was accomplished by a higher spring rate and a twin tube internal design damper which allows increased piston stroke and increased durability. TEIN TYPE FLEX features 16 levels of adjustment, pillowball upper mounts, three stage powder coating, full length ride height adjustment, and newly designed spring seat. TEIN TYPE FLEX is the ideal coilover system for users who participate in less intense motorsport events, such as track days and time attacks, while still being able to drive the same setup on the street without too much sacrifice in comfort. TEIN TYPE FLEX is also called Control Master and is intended for both street and competition use.

MONO FLEX– TEIN MONO FLEX COILOVERS are developed for entry level competition motorsports. Features include 16 levels of damping adjustment for both compression and rebound, pillowball upper mounts, Micro Speed Valving (MSV) Technology, inverted shell case, mono tube design, Teflon coated damper body, conical spring washers, full length adjustment. The heart of the TEIN MONO FLEX coilover system is its mono-tube damper, which allows increased oil capacity, improved heat dissipation, and larger valving. This mono-tube damper allows stiffer spring rates for racing application. TEIN MONO FLEX is designed for users seeking aggressive handling on the street and at the track. TEIN MONO FLEX is a step up from TEIN TYPE FLEX, with increase in performance but decrease in comfort. TEIN MONO FLEX is also called Winding Master and is intended for both street and competition use.

Competition Coilover Sytems

SUPER DRIFT– TEIN SUPER DRIFT COILOVERS are developed specifically for drifting. With the support of D1 drifting competition’s drivers and teams, TEIN was able to use their feedbacks and developed the TEIN SUPER DRIFT. Spring rates and damping force were chosen to increase car control in a drift, and help initiate a better  slide. TEIN SUPER DRIFT features a full length damper which allows separate ride height and preload setting adjustement. Other features include 16 levels of adjustment, specifically developed valving for drifting, Teflon coated damper body, twin tube shell case, and newly designed spring seat. TEIN SUPER DRIFT is the ideal coilover system for drifters of any level. TEIN SUPER DRIFT includes pillowball upper mounts which allow camber adjustment and a more responsive ride. TEIN SUPER DRIFT is also called Side Way Master and is intended for competition use.

SUPER RACING– TEIN SUPER RACING COILOVERS are developed from the actual competition experience. Both spring rate and shock valving were derived from years of motorsport experience. TEIN SUPER RACING has a fully adjustable damper utilizing a full length adjustable system to allow independent adjustment of shock height and pre-load. Separate 16 levels of adjustment for both compression and rebound allows user to fine tune the suspension. Front pillowball upper mounts allow for both camber and caster adjustments. Externals reservoirs on SA type dampers allow for added oil capacity and ultimate performance. Other features include high tensile strength racing spring, mono tube shell case, Alumite finish, and Teflon coated damper body. TEIN SUPER RACING is ideal for advanced and professional drivers who want a complete damper tuning capability. TEIN SUPER RACING is also called Circuit Master and is intended for competition use.

TYPE HT– TEIN TYPE HT COILOVER KIT was developed using TEIN’s experience in Tarmac racing. Both spring rate and shock valving were tuned for tight courses, such as Gymkhana and Autocross competition, allowing for fast transitional response and optimal grip. Separate 16 levels of adjustment for both compression and rebound allows the user to fine tune the suspension. Mono tube design allows for optimal performance. TEIN TYPE HT is ideal for drivers seeking quick and crisp response on tight courses, such as Gymkhana and Autocross competition. TEIN TYPE HT is also called Gymkhana Master and is intended for competition use.

TYPE HG– TEIN TYPE HG COILOVER KIT was developed using TEIN’s experience in Gravel racing. Both spring rate and shock valving were tuned for gravel courses, such as rally and dirt trail racing. TEIN TYPE HG is constructed from steel for additional durability, in order to survive the harsh conditions of gravel driving. Separate 16 levels of adjustment for both compression and rebound allows the user to fine tune the suspension. To prevent aeration, TEIN specially developed a unique free piston in the construction of TEIN TYPE HG. Other features include twin tube design, and external reservoir for extended shock travel needed for gravel courses. TEIN TYPE HG is ideal for serious gravel driving, such as Rallycross, stage rally, and dirt trail racing. TEIN TYPE HG is also called Dirt Master and is intended for competition use.

TYPE GRAVEL– TEIN TYPE GRAVEL COILOVER KIT is TEIN’s entry-level competition damper for Gravel racing. Just like the TEIN TYPE HG, shock valving was tuned for gravel courses, such as rally and dirt trail racing. The piston stroke has been designed and tested for ultimate performance on uneven surfaces, and to withstand the abuse from gravel racing. Other features include 16 levels of damping force adjustment and twin tube shell case design. TEIN TYPE GRAVEL can be used with OEM springs, however for optimal performance use of TEIN G TECH springs is highly recommended. TEIN TYPE HG is ideal for users who drive aggressively on gravel, and want the ability to use different springs. TEIN TYPE Gravel is also called Dirt Trail Master and is intended for competition use. PLEASE NOTE: TEIN TYPE GRAVEL damper kit does not include springs.

TYPE N1– TEIN TYPE N1 COILOVER KIT was developed through extensive road racing experience. TEIN TYPE N1 is TEIN’s flagship damper for circuit racing; it is the pinnacle of TEIN’s racing innovation and technology. TEIN TYPE N1 damper stroke and valving were designed specifically for circuit racing. Some of the advance features include 20 levels of separate compression and rebound adjustment, full length adjustability of the shock height, external reservoirs, and mono tube design. TEIN recommends using TEIN racing springs with TEIN TYPE N1 dampers. TEIN TYPE N1 damper is ideal for professional circuit racing. TEIN TYPE N1 is also called Circuit Master and is intended for competition use. PLEASE NOTE: TEIN TYPE N1 damper kit does not include springs.

TYPE Gr.N– TEIN Group N damper was developed through rigorous testing in the P-WRC. TEIN Group N is TEIN’s flagship damper for off road use, it is the pinnacle of off-road coilover system and TEIN’s latest technology. Some of the advance features include 3+1 way damper adjustment, full length adjustability of the shock height, external reservoirs, and inverted mono tube design. Other TEIN’s latest technologies include Micro Speed Valving (MSV), Temperature Compensating Valve (TCV), and Hydraulic Bump Stop (HBS).  TEIN Group N is being used by many rally teams around the world and is ideal for teams seeking a serious performance coilover system for off-road competition.


Source by Tim Bergen

Rain-X Repel Vs Rain-X Latitude Wiper Blades


How a Woman Sees the Rain-X Repel vs the Rain-X Latitude

As a woman, it is often difficult to determine which wiper blades and wiper size are best for my vehicle. I was attracted to the two popular brands by Rain-X that fit my car and that were available online. Determining the best alternative required a little research. Most manufacturers recommend that wiper blades be replaced every year. It is understandable if you live in a dry climate that the blades would certainly need replacement as they weathered and became brittle and inefficient. It would also be important that installation of the wiper blades be simple and easy for a woman. Most importantly, I wanted something that would provide clear visibility during frequent rain and snow storms.

In comparing the Rain-X Repel and Rain-X Latitude windshield wipers, there appeared to be little difference in the availability for most car makes and models. There was a price difference and a different technology that was used in the construction or operation of the wiper blades. Here is a comparison of the features for the two wiper blades:

Rain-X Repel Wiper Blade Features

Rain-X Repel windshield wipers utilize a new technology that provides clearer visibility when driving by using a patented coating that helps the rain drops, snow and ice particles, as well as insects and mud to be transferred from the blade to the glass windshield.

The time-release coating technology is fast, usually within a few minutes before beading occurs, providing continual visibility for many wiper cycles. The special coating and curved blade design reduces windshield wiper noise and provides clearer window visibility without any streaking.

The Rain-X Repel wiper blades are available for an extensive list of popular car models and variety of makes from 1970 to current year.

Rain-X Repel requires that you follow activation procedures by thoroughly cleaning windows before installation. At twice the price, the Rain-X Repel offers the same advantage of anti-streaking as the Rain-X Latitude. These blades do not always lie flat on the windshield, as they often lift away from the surface under 60 to 70 mph winds, resulting in uneven wipes. With adjustment, the pressure on the windshield can be increased resulting in wipes that consistently contact the full surface of the windshield.

Rain-X Latitude Wiper Blade

Rain-X Latitude windshield wipers are best known for their contoured design that glides evenly over the windshield and their graphite-coated rubber blades that provide noise-free wiping action. They also replace standard style wiper blades and can be fitted with special adapters to accommodate use on eight different wiper blade arm styles or 98% of vehicle wiper blade arms.

These blades offer easy installation modes, including the small j-hook type adapters or multi-adapter for bayonet, larger j-hook or side pin arm wiper blade arms. The blades are constructed of durable, rubber-encased frames that resist harsh weather such as ice or snow or wind lift.

The Rain-X Latitude wiper is also offered for the same year range (1970-2011) for many models and makes of vehicles.

It appears that in making up my mind, I may have to consider the cost as a major factor, as well as ease of installation and emphasis on the quality of wiper pressure on maintaining consistent visibility. I suppose I would select the Rain-X Latitude wiper blades that, according to most online reviews, seem to be more consistent and half the price.


Source by Jae Ching

Aluminum and Magnesium Wheel Advantages for Automotive Performance in Luxury and Sport Applications


Mark Lisnyansky, President of Magnesium Inc. notes that, “Wheel weight is very important to overall performance as it is key component in “un-sprung” vehicle mass. Generally, the accepted rule for thumb for predicting performance benefits from sprung vs. un-sprung weight reduction is a factor of approximately 4:1. For every pound of un-sprung mass eliminated a four fold advantage is gained in vehicle performance parameters. For example, forged magnesium, large diameter wheels ( 20″-22″) increase the weight advantage over aluminum by eliminating, on average, 70-75 lbs. un-sprung mass, which would provide the same acceleration time and braking distance benefit as eliminating 250-300 pounds from the vehicle engine, chassis or passenger compartment.” Mr. Lisnyansky goes on to say that, “By virtue of these lighter wheels, forged wheels are at least 20% lighter, sustaining equal loads with better characteristics, which is always easier on the car and its suspension. Lighter wheels also yield shorter breaking distance, which saves lives, shorter acceleration and reduces fuel consumption.”

The forged aluminum and magnesium wheel manufacturing process is critical to wheel strength. They are produced by applying extremely high forces to base material in a contained die. The forged wheel blanks, or “pre-forms”, undergo very beneficial changes in metallurgical grain structure during this process. The more random grain structure found in standard cast wheels becomes a more highly organized and aligned grain structure when wheels are forged. More importantly, forged wheel metallurgical microstructure in both aluminum and magnesium can be further oriented in the forging process to provide the highest material strength exactly where wheels see the highest loading from road surface hazards or from lateral and other loading generated by the vehicles own inertia. Going one step further, today’s advanced computer aided modeling techniques allow the wheel manufacturer and the automaker to collaborate in optimizing a specific forged wheel geometry and design for the utmost strength and safety on the vehicle.

SMW Engineering, a division of is a leader in developing magnesium wheels. Engineers at acknowledge another important feature of forged wheels over low pressure cast wheels is the integrity of surface finish achievable. Most final wheel styles and finish combinations are enhanced by the density and uniformity of cosmetic surfaces on forged wheels. This is particularly important on higher-end vehicle applications where a bright wheel finish is desired but chrome plating is not an alternative due to mass, cost and environmental considerations. Forged, bright polished wheels certainly make a dramatic addition to the vehicles appearance and aesthetics.

While forging processing cost is higher than the standard, low-pressure casting process used on wheels that come as original equipment on many vehicles, even the most cost-conscious auto manufacturers do install forged wheels on their highest performing vehicles. By optimizing wheel strength through process and material choices, the many benefits in overall vehicle performance will make forged magnesium wheels one of the key milestones in upcoming production vehicle refinement, performance and safety improvement.

Technology in forging magnesium wheels is always advancing. With the new technologies come new applications in forging and coating. SMW Engineering and are researching and testing new design methods regularly. The racing world, automotive and motorcycle, has for some time adopted magnesium wheels as efficient tools for weight reduction, better handling and increased performance. Luxury car and bike manufacturers are now meeting consumer interest and demand for not only high-performance magnesium wheels but exclusively designed and coated magnesium wheels. recently announced the introduction of one-piece, forged magnesium wheels for street use in North America. The wheels are 20 to 30 percent lighter than forged aluminum and offer increased safety and performance.

“The U.S. wheel market is quite formidable and we intend to supply a smaller but very important segment of the 100 million vehicle wheels used in North America,” said Mark Lisnyansky, President of “We will provide the best-in-class wheels that automakers can offer as an option on new vehicles and consumers can add to their present vehicles.”

The magnesium alloy wheels are initially available in 20 and 22-inch sizes, and are treated with a high-tech anti-corrosion coating. The company will also be developing wheels in various sizes and compositions for specific North American applications.

“Steel wheels are becoming nearly obsolete and the prevailing trend is toward cast aluminum wheels. While most people are not familiar with forged wheels, performance car enthusiasts know that forged wheels offer significant advantages, and forged magnesium wheels, which are lighter and much stronger than their aluminum counterparts, are the next logical step in optimizing vehicle performance.”

Magnesium wheels offer consumers improved safety by shortening braking distances and delivering higher acceleration rates as well as improving gas mileage. There is also the dampening factor of magnesium, which allows for vibrations caused by road imperfections to be absorbed six times more effectively.

Mr. Lisnyansky added that along with the safety aspects, “forged magnesium wheels will also provide appreciable impact to vehicle performance by decreasing un-sprung mass, an important performance factor.”

Using specialized aviation industry equipment, the company has been producing Superbike and Formula One competition wheels for many years. The wheels are forged in Russia by a subsidiary and then machined and finished in Italy.

Why not build a finishing line in Russia? “Prospective customers, primarily automotive original equipment manufacturers, often require the comfort level of having their suppliers’ wheels produced locally, even if the forging itself arrives from Russia,” Lisnyansky said. recently held a “Best New Wheel Design” competition, and is negotiating with several large distributors to establish a joint machining and finishing facility in the U.S. The company is considering an acquisition of or a joint venture with a local wheel company with an existing high-end market presence and brand name recognition.


Source by Nikolai Lobov

Chevy Camaro – A Small, Vicious Animal That Eats Mustangs


While engineers and designers feverishly worked overtime on the development of a four-passenger sports car they code-named the F-car, the Chevy public relations, marketing and advertising team prepared the world for the introduction of a car they called the Panther.

All through the summer of 1965 virtually every aspect of the vehicle’s design and development, from preliminary design sketches to clay models, was photographed and carefully documented. Chevy used the assets to create a 30 -minute movie The Camaro, which was later shown on TV and in movie theaters. They also introduced women’s clothing called the Camaro Collection and even a Camaro road race game.

In November, Chevy sales executives and creative people previewed prototype models at the GM Tech Center. Campbell-Ewald, Chevy’s venerable ad agency, immediately began work on catalogs, direct mail and sales promotion materials, along with print, outdoor and TV/radio advertising. In April 1966, at the New York Auto Show Press Conference, Chevrolet sales executives admitted no name had been chosen for the new vehicle, but did announce that pricing of 1967 model will be in the Corvair-Chevy II range.

Throughout early 1966 Chevy agonized over a name for its Mustang-killer. GM’s upper management was nervous about the aggressive connotations of the Panther name. A similar bout of cold feet would later cause the Pontiac version, code named the Banshee, to be renamed Firebird. Over its short lifetime, the F-car had been called by many names including Wildcat, Chaparral, Commander and Nova. It’s also rumored that Chevy considered using the letters “GM” in the name, and came up with G-Mini, which evolved into GeMini and finally Gemini. However, GM’s upper management vetoed the idea, fearing the car might be a failure.

Automotive legend has it that someone at Chevrolet finally proposed the name Camaro and upper management quickly agreed. Although the name has no real meaning, GM researchers reportedly found the word in a French dictionary as a slang term for “friend” or “companion.” It’s rumored that Ford Motor Company researchers also discovered other definitions, including “a shrimp-like creature” and an arcane term for “loose bowels.”

Because a number or pre-launch materials had already been released using the Panther name, Chevy’s most pressing challenge was to now rename their new Mustang killer, the Camaro.

On June 21, 1966, around 200 automotive journalists received a telegram from General Motors stating, “Please be available at noon of June 28 for important press conference. Hope you can be on hand to help scratch a cat. Details will follow.” The mysterious telegram was signed, John L. Cutter – Chevrolet Public Relations – SEPAW Secretary. The next day, journalists received another mysterious telegram stating, “Society for the Eradication of Panthers from the Automotive World will hold first and last meeting on June 28.” Once again, the telegram was signed, John L. Cutter – Chevrolet Public Relations – SEPAW Secretary.

Finally, on June 28, 1966, General Motors held a live press conference in Detroit’s Statler-Hilton Hotel. It was the first time in history that 14 cities were hooked up in real time for a press conference via telephone lines. Elliot M. “Pete” Estes, who replaced “Bunkie” Knudsen as Chevrolet General Manager in July 1965, started the news conference by declaring all participants were now charter members of the Society for the Elimination of Panthers from the Automotive World (SEPAW.) Estes confidently announced that Camaro was chosen as the name for Chevy’s new four-passenger sports car to honor the tradition of beginning Chevy model names with the letter C such as the Corvette, Corvair, Chevelle, and Chevy II. Most automotive insiders agreed it was a ridiculous statement, given the fact that the Chevy Impala was then the best-selling car in the world. Estes then went on to explain that the Camaro name was, “derived from a French word meaning comrade or pal and suggests the comradeship of good friends as a personal car should be to its owner.” Automotive legend also has it that, after the press conference, when a member of the automotive press asked, “what is a Camaro?” a Chevrolet product manager quickly answered by saying, “a small, vicious animal that eats Mustangs.”

Shortly after the press conference, editors from major magazines were invited to the GM Proving Grounds for a hands-on driving experience, hot laps with professional drivers and briefing on all aspects of the Camaro. Dealers saw the Camaro for the first time in August, at the Chevrolet Sales Convention in Detroit. LIFE Magazine teaser ads appeared in early September. On September 25, the first Camaro ads appeared in national newspapers. On September 28, 1966, Chevrolet launched an unprecedented ad blitz consisting of newspapers, magazines, radio, television, outdoor and television advertising.

The very first Chevy Camaro television commercial can still be seen on YouTube. It features a white Camaro RS/SS with the distinctive bumble-bee nose band emerging from a volcano. The voice over proudly introduces “The fiery new Camaro from Chevrolet… something you’ve never seen before.”

Just prior to the official June 29th launch date, a press package with photos, specifications, and line stories were released to newspapers and magazines across the country. Over 100 members of the press were invited to participate in a gymkhana driving competition at the GM Proving Grounds. The same type of event was held one week later in Los Angeles. A group of editors were also selected to drive top-optioned Camaro RS/SS models from Detroit to their home cities so they could publish, “I drove it personally,” feature articles in their local newspapers. Finally, on September 29, 1966, the Chevrolet Camaro was released to the public.

Mustang’s two and a half year head start in the market did little blunt America’s eagerness to see the new Camaro. Chevy dealerships across the country were filled to overflowing with curious and willing buyers. Dealerships were issued special window trim, urged to black-out their windows and extend their showroom hours. Long lines formed to even glimpse the new vehicle. Those waiting in line were also more than willing to debate the merits of Mustang and the still unseen Camaro. It’s rumored that local police were often called help control the crowds.

Once inside dealerships in most metro areas, buyers were treated to not one but three Camaro models. Chevy made every effort to provide their largest dealers with a base sport coupe, Camaro RS and a Camaro SS convertible. The tactic was an extension of the creative approach used in Chevy’s national ads which showed all three Camaro models under a tag line, “How much Camaro you want depends on how much driver you want to be.”

The sticker price of $2,466 for a Camaro base coupe and $2,704 for a base convertible was fully competitive with Ford’s pricing of their 1967 Mustang models which was $2,461 for the standard coupe, $2,692 for a standard fastback and $2,898 for a standard convertible.

Taking a page from Mustang’s success in earning added profit from options and accessories, the Camaro could be ordered with nearly 80 factory options and 40 dealer accessories. Buyers could also option up to a larger 250-inch version of the standard straight six engine, a choice of 327-cubic-inch small-block V8s fed by either a two-barrel or a four-barrel carburetor and two versions of the 396-cubic-inch big-block V8. In order to keep the new Camaro from taking sales away from the Corvette, a corporate edict forbade equipping it with engines larger than 400 cid. Transmission options included a four-speed manual, a two-speed “Powerglide” and in late 1967 the new three-speed “Turbo Hydra-Matic 350”.

The first 1967 Camaro built at the Norwood, Ohio, plant had a VIN ending in N100001; the first built at the Van Nuys, California, plant had a VIN ending in L100001. The 1967 Camaro was the only model year to have its VIN tag mounted on the door hinge pillar. VIN tags on later models were moved so they would be visible through the windshield. 1967 was the only model year to feature side vent windows. 1968 saw the introduction of a fresh-air inlet system called Astro Ventilation. The bumblebee nose stripe included in the SS package also became available as a separate option in March 1968.

As factory-fresh Camaros rolled off the assembly lines at Norwood and Van Nuys, the Chevy team worked just as hard to keep Camaro in the public eye. Camaro, in fact, was chosen as the Official Pace Car for the 1967 Indianapolis 500. A white Camaro RS convertible with a 396 V8 engine, not normally available for that package, and a distinctive blue bumble-bee stripe around the nose paced the field. Over 100 special reproductions of the pace car were also produced as promotional vehicles for Chevy dealerships across the country.

A total of 41,100 new Camaro’s were registered in the 1966 calendar-year and an additional 204,862 in 1967. Ford, on the other hand, sold almost a half million Mustangs in 1967. Still, the battle lines were drawn. Chevy knew they had a winner and devised a bold strategy. If they couldn’t beat Mustang on the showroom floor, they would at least beat it at the track. And while GM wasn’t officially into racing, that didn’t stop Chevrolet engineers from developing the Z/28, one of the most potent and powerful performance packages of all time. But, that’s still another story.


Source by Wally Koster

Parking Issues in Major Cities


All major cities experience massive struggles with providing ample parking to their residents. Individuals who live in big cities like New York, Boston, Los Angeles, San Francisco and Washington, DC know all too well what a difficult and time consuming task it is to search for and find a parking spot.

Major cities have historically had to deal with the chronic shortage of parking spaces, whether in garages or on the street. Moreover, in most areas of most large cities, one has to pay for on-street parking on weekdays and Saturdays, whereas parking on Sundays is free.

Looking for parking is stressful and frustrating. The usual complaints of residents and guests in big cities trying to find parking are:

• there are not enough spaces;

• spaces are too far away;

• parking costs too much;

• I did not know where to park;

• I couldn’t find any parking so I had to double-park or park in an illegal spot;

• I thought I found a good spot but as it turned out I parked in an illegal spot; now I have a parking ticket / my car has been towed;

• I could not get a parking permit; and

• the parking staff at this garage is rude.

Any city (big cities especially) needs to provide convenient and affordable parking for its residents and visitors. Additionally, looking for a spot in a big city can add about 40% to city traffic. Obviously, providing more space is paramount, and there are multiple ways to do so.

1. Parking Facilities

Creating more facilities, either government- or private-owned is a common way to increase supply. These facilities are certainly expensive to build and maintain. The price to enter and use a parking facility needs to be justified in consumers’ eyes so that individuals will want to pay to park at a particular establishment.

Naturally, building more parking facilities not only adds to costs but also takes away space available previously for building houses or offices or other businesses. City officials need to balance housing and business needs versus parking needs of their residents. Moreover, officials and businesses must weigh carefully whether the new facilities will be used effectively, i.e., to full capacity.

2. Street Parking

Another way to increase supply is to increase on-street parking. Cities and local governments can design streets with parking lanes. Alternatively, officials can elect to convert some of the traffic lanes into parking lanes. Finally, officials can choose to minimize restrictions for on-street parking. As street parking is convenient, visible, and relatively inexpensive, it can help alleviate some of the parking concerns.

Disadvantages of adding more space for parking on the streets are clearly fewer traffic lanes which might lead to heavier traffic. Big cities like Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco, Boston and Washington, DC are already in the top 10 heaviest traffic cities in the United States. Therefore, in the cities where the traffic is already an issue, there needs to be a careful balance struck between potentially adding to traffic by adding more parking.

Any big city should also devise best practices for both garage uses and street parking. In Boston, for example, most streets in the downtown area are equipped with high-tech parking meters, which are said to have increased revenue by about 34%, as fewer meters are expired.

Similarly, in New York City, the ParkSmart project introduced time-variable meter pricing (higher rates during peak periods and lower rates off-peak). This project has led to higher revenue and fewer expired meters. In San Francisco, SFpark, based on the same variable timing-pricing model or demand pricing, has proved to be successful as well.


Source by Kyle A Smith

The Terms You See When Buying BMW Parts Online


If you are going to make improvements to your BMW car chances are you have searched the internet to find the best deals on BMW parts and BMW accessories. Choosing to purchase BMW replacement or upgrade parts online is a good option because it can save a little bit of money.

There are many company brands and products to select from in the field of aftermarket and OEM parts. The aftermarket and OEM parts industry use some terms like aftermarket, genuine, OEM, OEA and OES, and some people get confused with these terms. It is important that you have the right understanding of the terms to help you make right decision when buying parts and accessories to purchase.

Aftermarket BMW Car Parts

These parts are not manufactured by a subcontracted company of a major car maker. Though the manufacturer of aftermarket auto parts is not tied with a major auto maker, they produce parts that fit and perform just like the OEM as they are manufactured with the same materials and equipment.

Genuine BMW Car Parts

This term simply means that the BMW parts are presented in original BMW product packaging. The parts are always considered genuine if it has a BMW stamp on it or boxed in genuine BMW package. Take note that these parts are subcontracted to manufacturers of the particular product and not the actual BMW company. Original Equipment Manufacturer is what you call the company that produces the specific part for BMW.

OEM BMW Car Parts

Original Equipment Manufacturer and Genuine BMW part is basically the same product. However, the company has their own product packaging instead of taking it to BMW for packaging under the BMW brand name.

Original Equipment Aftermarket (OEA) or Original Equipment Supplier (OES) BMW Parts

A company could produce genuine parts for other car maker, but if they have never manufactured a part for BMW, they will never be regarded as original BMW part or OEM BMW part.

Now that you have an idea of the terms you see when you look for BMW car parts on the Internet, you can use this to make the right choice for your car. Also, check the warranty policy and credentials of the company.


Source by Quincy Chase

How To Change The Engine Oil And Filter On A Peugeot 205 Diesel Part One


The Peugeot 205 is a great little car. The original ‘hot-hatch’ – they were immensely popular from the moment they were introduced back in 1983, due to their styling, performance, and nimble handling. The reliability of the diesel versions is the stuff of legend, and there are still plenty of well-maintained examples on the road today.

The cost of running a car has increased enormously over the last decade, and even owners of an economical car like the diesel 205 need to cut unnecessary spending wherever possible. One simple way to achieve this is to do your own oil changes.

The 205 diesel engine has a reputation for being virtually unbreakable, but only if the engine oil and filter are replaced every 6000 miles. This is an easy job to do and will only take around half an hour. Oils and filters can be bought cheaply at any motor factor or car-parts shop. I recommend that you use semi-synthetic oil, as it is more durable than ordinary mineral oil and only a little more expensive.

Before you start, be sure to assemble all the things you will need. These are:

1) 5 litres of semi-synthetic oil for diesel engines

2) New oil filter (FRAM part No. PH5566A)

3) New 16mm copper washer for the sump plug

4) Old washing-up bowl

5) Latex gloves

6) Newspaper

7) Kitchen paper

8) Tool for sump plug (17mm socket, or 8mm square for turbo engine)

9) Oil filter removal strap

I also like to flatten out a cardboard box to kneel on.

First, the car should be parked on a flat and level surface ideally in a garage, but if not pick a day when the wind isn’t blowing. Start the engine and allow it to reach near normal operating temperature then switch it off. This is because the old oil will drain out more quickly when it is warm. Next, put on your gloves, open the bonnet, and release the oil filler cap on top of the engine. It is orange, has two spring-clips holding it on, and the dip-stick goes down through the middle of it. The filler cap is located at the highest part of the engine. Now spread out the newspaper under the car to catch any drips and place the washing-up bowl under the sump plug. This is located at the lowest part of the engine. If you are fortunate enough to own the turbo version, use the 8mm square tool held in a socket to turn the sump plug anti-clockwise, otherwise, you need a 17mm ring spanner or socket. BE VERY CAREFUL HERE. The oil may be hot enough to burn you and will gush out very quickly when you remove the plug. The oil will stop dripping in a few minutes.

Meanwhile, carefully move the washing-up bowl towards you a little, so that it is now underneath the oil filter as well. On the non-turbo engine there is good access to the filter, and you can easily wind the strap around it and unscrew it, again turning anti-clockwise. Be aware that hot oil will spill out from the filter when it is removed, and it should to be kept upright until you can drain it into the washing-up bowl. This is not the case with the turbo engine though. Access to the oil filter is very limited, and I find I cannot remove it by normal means. The way that I remove the filter sounds drastic, but it works. What I do, leaning in to the engine bay, is to gently tap two long thin screwdrivers right through the top of the filter and down to the bottom, placed diametrically opposite each other, and as close to the sides of the can of the filter as possible. Then I lay a short metal bar on top of the filter and swing it round anti-clockwise until it contacts both of the screwdriver blades. By keeping the screwdriver handles vertical with one hand I have enough purchase to turn the filter with the other and loosen it. Once loosened, it spins off the rest of the way using my fingers. If you examine the filter once it is off, you will see that this method cannot cause any damage to the engine.

You are now halfway through…

Now it is time to put it all back together. Begin by cleaning the sump plug and then fit the new copper washer on to it. Now wipe around the plug hole with the kitchen paper, before screwing the plug back in (clockwise) until hand-tight. Use the tool to tighten it a further 3/4 of one turn and you are done. Do not tighten any more than this, as you may distort the metal and cause an oil leak. Next, wipe off any old oil from around the filter housing, being careful not to introduce dirt into the recess. Take the new filter out of its box and look at the underside. You will see a thick black rubber sealing ring. This must be lubricated with a little fresh engine oil before fitting. The easy way to do this is to dip a gloved fingertip into the new oil and then ‘paint’ round the rubber ring until it looks obviously oily. Now spin the new filter on (clockwise) being careful not to cross-thread it at the start. Keep turning the filter lightly by hand until you feel resistance, then turn it a further 1/2 of one turn. There is no need to tighten any further, and doing so would only make it very difficult to remove at the next service interval.

At this point you are ready to put the new oil into the engine. The engine requires 4.5 litres of oil in total, so you will find it useful to put 4 litres in straight away. It can be difficult to pour a full bottle of oil without spilling any, so go slowly, giving the oil time to drain away down the filler aperture, otherwise it may bubble up and splash over the side. If you are using a funnel you must be very careful about this, as you could easily lose a whole funnel-full because of this effect. After you have the first 4 litres in, it is time to start the engine and distribute the new oil around inside it. There will be a slight delay in building oil pressure until the new filter has been filled up, so the oil warning light may stay on for a few seconds at first. Run the engine for a minute, then switch it off and leave it for at least 5 minutes. This gives time for the oil to settle back down to the sump, and you can then get a proper reading on the dip-stick. Withdraw the dip-stick from the oil filler cap and carefully wipe it clean on kitchen paper. Now push the dip-stick all the way back into its slot and take it out again. This time, you will be able to see how far the new oil has come up between the two notches. The dip-stick looks a bit like a thin flat steel ribbon – be sure to look at both sides to get the true reading. A reading anywhere between the upper and lower level marks means that the engine has sufficient oil to run without damage, but you should always try to keep the engine oil at or just below the upper mark. This is for two reasons: a greater quantity of oil means there is more fresh oil in the engine, but also, oil serves to cool the parts of the engine that water cannot get to. So oil actually plays two vital roles in the engine: lubrication and cooling.

Getting the oil to the correct level on the dip-stick can be a bit tricky, and you must be careful not to over-fill with oil – at best, the engine will blow the excess oil out through its breather pipes and into the air filter; at worst it can cause oil seals to pop and subsequently leak. Just keep adding a little more oil then let it settle for a minute before wiping off the stick and checking again. It helps to know that the see-through window on the side of the oil bottle is marked in 1/4 litre sections, so you know how much has already gone in to the engine. Don’t just pour 4.5 litres straight in there though, because there is always a little of the old oil still left behind in the engine.

Now it’s time to tidy up. Wipe off any oil that has spilled over the engine with kitchen paper and place it in a plastic bag with the old filter. I then tip the used oil into old plastic milk bottles ready to take to the recycling centre. Likewise with the newspaper and cardboard I have used. On no account must oil or anything contaminated with oil be dumped as household waste, or tipped down any drain. It must be disposed of properly.

That’s it now. Clean your tools, wash your hands, and go for a drive. Notice how the engine sounds smoother and pulls just that little bit more eagerly – you might almost think it’s saying thank you! And you just saved yourself a load of money, and put in the best oil! Enjoy…


Source by Don Brooks

Frequently Asked Questions About Catalytic Converters


Choosing the right catalytic converter for your car is increasingly recognised as one of the most important decisions you will make when maintaining your car. Whether you are looking to maximise performance, minimise fuel consumption or do your bit for the environment getting the right catalytic converter for you will save time, money and avoid the headaches of failing an MoT.

Here are some frequently asked questions about catalytic converters:

Why should I have a catalytic converter?

If your car was fitted after 1st August 1992 with a catalytic converter from new, you need to have one for the MoT. It needs to be in good working order to comply with the Government’s emissions legislation. The engine has been designed to work with a Cat and besides giving out toxic emissions, the performance will be reduced if your Cat is not working properly. You will fail the annual MoT if either it is not present or it is not in good working order.

Can I remove my Cat?

If your car was registered after 1st August 1992 you must have the Cat present and working for the MoT. Previously registered cars can have the Cat permanently removed.

Why do people want to remove their Cats?

Without a Cat the engine gives more power and reduced petrol consumption. You may remove the Cat for track / competition / display use, for example.

Why might my Cat fail?

Road Damage

The outside of the cat can be damaged by hitting solid objects in the road. ie, speed bumps, large rocks etc.

Plugged or contaminated

Plugged or contaminated catalytic converters are caused by the wrong sort of fuel in your car. Using leaded or lead replacement fuel will plug up the monolith and cause it to stop working. A similar thing will happen if fuel additives are used that are not suitable for use with a catalytic converter.

Melted / Broken substrate

A monolith is usually broken when it is impacted by an object or when it suffers a sudden change in temperature. If the catalytic converter suffers road damage (See section on road damage) the monolith inside can be cracked due to it being crushed by the movement on the steel can.

The use of exhaust paste before the catalytic converter can cause the monolith to break. When the exhaust paste has hardened, small pellets may break away and shoot into the catalytic converter. The monolith will gradually be destroyed by these pellets and break down. The catalytic converter can also be damaged by excessive engine vibration. Another possible cause of a fractured monolith is a sudden temperature change. (See number 7 in “Caring for your Catalytic Converter”)

The monolith can be melted when unburned fuel is injected into the catalytic converter. This can be caused by the car being bump or tow started, or if the car’s engine requires several turns before firing. More information can be found on this is the section on “Overheating”.


There are many problems that can cause a catalytic converter to overheat or fail. The most common cause is unburned fuel entering the catalytic converter. Also faulty spark plugs and leads will cause the engine to misfire and ruin the catalytic converter. It will also be damaged if the distributor timing is out.

  • Oxygen Sensor – An oxygen sensor collects and sends information to the Electronic Control Unit. This is used to control the fuel/air mix. If the oxygen sensor is faulty, or it has been contaminated with silicone from anti-freeze or sealant, he fuel/air mixture will not be corrected and excess fuel will enter the catalytic converter, causing it to overheat.
  • Fuel injection systems – If a fuel injector is leaking internally or dribbling fuel into the engine the catalytic converter may be damaged. The excess fuel will enter the exhaust system and cause it to overheat. Due to the varying fuel injector systems the proper manual should always be consulted when trying to diagnose a problem.
  • Map Sensors – Map sensors tell the Electronic Control Unit the load on the engine and the amount of air entering it. If this sensor fails it causes a rich condition in the engine, which can overheat the catalytic converter causing it to fail.
  • Carburettor systems – A worn or defective carburettor can cause a catalytic converter to overheat. Problems such as improper float or air/fuel mix adjustments and worn metering rods can damage the catalytic converter. The choke system also needs to be operating properly so the right level of fuel enters the system. If too much fuel enters the system it will overheat and eventually fail.
  • Canister Purge Valve Control – This vacuum operated valve vents fuel vapour from the carburettor bowl to the charcoal canister. If the vacuum is breached the charcoal canister will flood, causing the air/fuel mixture to become very rich. This will cause the catalytic converter to overheat and break down.


A catalytic converter should not be considered to be a silencer although it does have some silencing qualities. Noise can be caused by excessive fuel getting into the catalytic converter.

What happens if my Cat fails?

If a catalyst fails it can block and the car will break down.

What does my Cat do?

Catalytic converters are specialist environmentally friendly devices fitted in the exhausts of vehicles which ensure that hydrocarbons are burnt off and that minimise the emission of harmful pollutants. Cars fitted with converters can use only unleaded petrol as the lead in leaded fuel poisons the converter and irreparably damages it.

Car manufacturers have ruled out the retrofitting of catalytic converters on older cars, saying that it could irreparably damage the converter, as vehicles which have been using leaded fuel for many years have lead deposits in their engines. On fitting with a catalytic converter, these deposits could poison the Cat and damage it permanently.

Unleaded fuel, when burnt, produces gases such as carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen, the latter three can be poisonous or carcinogenic. A Catalytic Converter, which is working correctly, creates a chemical reaction between these gases, which converts them to relatively harmless gases. It is critical for the environment that you have your Catalytic converter checked regularly to ensure it is functioning properly.

Catalytic converters fitted to vehicles can reduce toxic emissions (e.g. Carbon Monoxide, NO2, HC) by up to 90%. Catalytic converters do not reduce CO2 emissions.

Can I fit a Cat to a car which doesn’t have one?

If your engine ran on leaded petrol you cannot. The old deposits will poison the Cat.

How can I best care for my Cat?

There are several things you can do to ensure your ‘cat’ has a long and healthy life.

  1. When fitting the catalytic converter, don’t use exhaust paste in front of the cat. When the exhaust paste hardens it can break off in chunks and damage the monolith. Paste can also block the monolith.
  2. Always use the correct fuel for your car.
  3. Never use a fuel additive without first reading the instructions to find out if it is suitable for use with a catalytic converter. If in doubt, contact the manufacturer of the additive.
  4. Never attempt to bump or tow start your car. This causes unburned fuel to be injected into the catalytic converter, which makes the monolith overheat and melt.
  5. Never tow anything that is too heavy for your vehicle to cope with. For example, an overloaded caravan will actually push a car along when it travels downhill. This sends unburned fuel into the exhaust system and can cause the monolith to melt down.
  6. Have your car regularly serviced to your car makers specifications. In particular, make sure the engine is running properly. A poorly tuned engine can cause the monolith to break down or become covered in soot, which stops it working regularly.
  7. Take care when driving through deep puddles, fords or parking when there has been heavy snowfall. The catalytic converter operates at an extremely high temperature, and when it comes into direct contact with water or snow it cools down more rapidly than the monolith, and in extreme circumstances the monolith can be crushed as the steel shell contracts.
  8. Don’t park your car over long grass or anything similar. As the catalytic converter operates at such a high temperature it can actually set the grass on fire!
  9. Drive slowly over speed bumps or very bumpy roads to reduce the chance of the exhaust system being grounded. This could cause impact damage to the catalytic converters.


Source by J Freeman

How to Enjoy a Seadoo Camping Weekend


I must have the best summer weekend schedule of anyone I know. Well, except for my buddies who have pretty much the same weekend schedule that I do. I spend the entire week preparing for Friday evening, where I will pack up the truck, tighten down my Seadoo cover, hitch up the Seadoo trailer, and head out on my 2 hour drive up to the summer campsite destination. I have a small set of friends that share the same passion for Seadoo riding and camping that I do, so every year I look forward to a summer of good times relaxation at the lake.

On the lakes here in Ontario, summer is quite a long season relative to other places in Canada. I can start the camping season sometimes as early as May, although the Seadoo season is usually a little more bearable in June, all the way through to September. I seem to have the knack for convincing at least one more friend each year that this is the life, and they go out and find some camping gear and set themselves up with a Seadoo, trailer, life jacket, and often some pwc fishing gear.

The weekend begins immediately after work on Friday nights. The lake we’ve chosen this year is less than a two hour drive away, which is a perfect amount of time to unwind from work, listen to a couple of pod casts and some new tunes on my ipod, and just enjoy the drive. I generally have time when I arrive to unpack, setup, get the Seadoo out on the lake, and enjoy a quick trip to say hi to some other campers I know that are just arriving for the weekend as well. Getting back before dark means we can get supper started and end up eating our burgers by the light of the campfire.

Bright and early Saturday morning is my favorite part of the whole weekend. I make a quick pot of coffee, have a little snack, and grab my travel mug and fire up the Seadoo. My favorite alteration to my Seadoo has to be the bolt on coffee holder that I use for my super slow, check out the lake rides on Saturday morning. I get to see what’s been going on during the weekdays I’m not here, and sometimes if I get out early enough I turn off the engine and just float for a while enjoying the morning quiet out on the middle of the lake. After an hour or so I head back, and help make a huge camping breakfast, and really start the whole camping weekend.

My Seadoo ride on Saturday afternoon is definitely a different pace than my early morning trawl. I meet up with all my Seadoo buddies and we head out for a combination of touring, visiting other campsites, and we inevitably take part in some watercraft games and races. Wave jumping another Seadoo wake has to be my personal favorite. Although Seadooing in a group is tons of fun, I don’t want to fail to mention how important it is to keep your eyes open and follow some basic common sense and safety rules so your weekend isn’t ruined with an unnecessary accident.

Sunday morning is a sleep in day, but I always manage to get out on the lake for a ride before we fire up the BBQ for a late lunch. As long as I get the Seadoo out of the water before we put the grilled cheese sandwiches on the BBQ (yep, on the BBQ – my own invention!), it has time to dry out before I have to put the Seadoo covers on ready to trailer home. Keeping my Seadoo protected and covered is one of the biggest priorities for me, since this keep my watercraft in tip top shape for years of lake camping and riding my Seadoo. As sad as it is to go home on Sunday nights, I’m happy thinking that I’ll be out again next Friday, ready to do it all over again!


Source by Josh Brodderick