Advantages of Nylon Tube As Fuel Lines And Its Testing Methods In Automotive Industries


Nylon Tubes are fast replacing rubber hoses and steel pipes as fuel lines in auto industries. This is because of cleaner and smoother internal surface of tubing. Even installation of Nylon Tube as fuel line is much easy. It has enough capability to resist various automotive fuels like diesel and petrol and can withstand more pressure and temperature. Moreover, these tubes are available in different colors and sizes. It can also be easily shaped into permanent bends and angles quickly.

In automotive industries, OEMs – particularly cars and trucks manufacturers – all over the globe, generally adopt various test methods to determine the performance of Nylon pipe when used as fuel lines. The most common testing techniques adopted are;

1. Abrasion Resistant Test: In order to assess the abrasion resistance performance of tube, two different methods are used. The first technique is wheel based method as per IS 09352. In this method the loss in weight defines the tubing abrasion resistance performance. The second method has been particularly developed for Renault vehicles (and now adopted by some other vehicle manufacturers also). In this method the two specimen samples of tubing are used during testing. One specimen is kept fixed while the other is kept mobile. The thickness of both the pieces of tubes is measured at the end to determine the abrasion resistance performance.

2. Burst Pressure Test: In order to determine a safe and optimum working

Pressure of Nylon Tube as fuel line, burst pressure test is considered as an important test in industries. This pressure test determines the bursting capacity of tubing. Normally, the burst pressure test is carried out at room temperature-(usually at 23 °C) and also at elevated temperature (usually at 120 °C). Silicon oil is used applying 10 to 300 bar oil pressure for different sizes of Nylon tube. The outer diameter is constantly measured while gradually increasing the pressure.

3. Charpy Test: This test is inexpensive and fast to determine the impact resistance behavior of polyamide tubings as a fuel line.

4. Cold Impact Test: Cold impact test is also known as Drop impact test where cold chamber is used. Samples of Nylon Tubes are placed in the chamber equipped with fixture-tube holders. Various impact standards are adopted by different testing bodies and OEMs.

Nylon tubing as fuel line has,

• Excellent resistance against heat and outstanding mechanical properties.

• Good flexibility and cold impact resistance.

• High burst strength and fitting retention.


Source by Vikhar A Maniar

Rover P5b Engine Conversion


If you own a Rover P5B V8 model like me, you probably love the car but could do with more power. The original engine in the P5B is of the 3500cc variety. The good thing when it was first launched was it had a higher compression ratio than some of the later engines, but because the heads had smaller inlet and outlet valves it still limited the power some what. The other disadvantage was the problem of leaded fuel not being available so you have to keep adding lead additives to the fuel which many a P5 owner knows is a bit of a pain as you are always down the fuel station with such a big motor.

My first trick was to replace the heads with heads from the Rover SD1 which with the bigger valves and unleaded valve stems saved me the job of putting in the fuel additive each time but I didn’t really notice much extra power. The Rover P5B is a very heavy car anyway and I suppose your not supposed to drive it fast but I was hoping for a little change in performance. I then added a Weber Carburetter and changed the ignition to a Lumenition electronic ignition system to get rid of the old points system. This made a bit of a difference but the performance was not what I would call startling.

Then I decided to dig deep into my pockets, rob the piggy bank and opt for fitting the 4.6 ltr engine from the later Range rovers. Now this engine is really the same original block as the 3.5 ltr from the Rover P5, so actually it is nearly a straight swap. If you are keeping the original distributor from the P5 then you have to keep the same front cover from the engine because the oil pump teeth are different for each model. Apart from that everything goes in nicely. The engine mounts line up and all the exhaust manifolds go back together just as the old one. If you trying to keep your Rover looking original, you can even use the original rocker covers so even the insurance man couldn’t tell the difference. Until he drove it of course.

How does it drive? Well, between the two engines is like between day and night. You will be grinning from ear to ear for days afterwards. So if you have a few spare bob and need your Rover P5 to pick up its heels and go. Your only option has to be the 4.6Ltr V8.


Source by Tony B Ellis

How Gold is Used in Space


With the chemical symbol of “Au”, atomic number of “79”, and a melting point of 1064.43 degrees centigrade, Gold is a non-toxic, biologically friendly, and a metal of excellent electric conductivity known to Man from ancient times. Also thought to being closely connected to the ancient gods and Angels, Gold was platted into beautiful ornaments, and jewellery to please the wealthy, noble, and rulers. The ancient Egyptians used gold in the making of the Pyramids, and buried the Pharaohs with Gold. Many medieval Kings had their thrones, and armour built form the precious metal. As Man continued to evolve, he found out more ways to use gold to his advantage.

As unbelievable as it seems, gold is also utilised in Aerospace engineering. All the space vehicles produced, or launched by NASA has a quantity of gold within them. Because of its capability to conduct well, it is used in circuitry. Certain elements of all space vehicles have gold-coated polyester film on them. This film serves the rationale of reflecting infrared radiation, and preserves the temperature of the space vehicles as required. In the absences of this film, some components will infuse all the heat, immensely raising the temperature of the vehicle.

Devoid of gold, man would not have visited the moon. Gold, in the shape of sheets 0.15mm thick, are brought into play in space programmes, as a radiation safeguard. For the reason that gold is such an efficient reflector, it redirects the blazing heat of the sun.

Gold is essential to safe space travel, so its requirement has visibly grown, as the space industry has. For instance, more than 40.8 kilograms of gold was utilised in the building of the well-known US Columbia space shuttle, largely in brazing alloys, fuel cell manufacture, in addition to coated plastic films along with electrical contacts.

Gold is used in circuits that are built-in into the spacecrafts, as it is an outstanding conductor. In addition, several parts of spacecrafts are en suite with gold-coated polyester film that reflects infrared radiations, and assists with controlling the temperature within the vehicle. Without this, the vehicle would suck up too much heat, making it complicated to manoeuvre. Gold is in addition used as a lubricant among the assorted mechanical parts of the spacecraft. If any other lubricant were to be used, it would not have endured the radiation in space, and would have infused.

Gold is also used in making helmets put on by astronauts. An extremely thin layer of gold is electroplated within the visor, which averts the unsafe solar emission from inflowing, and mirrors it back. In this manner, it cares for the vision of the astronauts.

Gold is noteworthy in space travel. In view of the fact that space travel has amplified over the years, so has the stipulation for gold. It is used in approximately all space vehicles designed by NASA that are worth billions of dollars.

Even though gold is a costly element, its countless virtues make it useful for space vehicles. Had it not been used to buy gold, space voyage might not have been such a triumphant task, as it is in the present day.


Source by Jack Wogan

Tire Bulges and Indents: Does Your Tire Have a "Spare Tire?"


Bulges and indentations can be nothing to worry about or a serious problem.

Being made out of rubber (and a bunch of other stuff, but we’ll stick with rubber for now) tires are pretty flexible. They need to be, in order to deal with changing road conditions. Tires made entirely out of stone, regardless of what cartoonists would have us think, simply don’t work very well.

It is this very flexibility that helps to give modern tires their strength and resilience. However, it can also lead to indentations and bulges.

There’s nothing unusual about small indentations in the sidewall. These indentations (or “undulations” as they are sometimes called) are a purely visual condition. Tire performance is not affected at all. In fact, they are very often found on radial tires as a characteristic of the tire construction process. The indentations are more noticeable on larger tires, because of their taller sidewall, and on tires that operate at the higher end of the inflation pressure scale.

Tires are reinforced with cords of fabric, usually a synthetic such as polyester or nylon. Radial tires have at least one layer of these cords, more if it is a heavy duty tire. The cords run parallel to each other but sometimes overlap. This overlap can cause a slight indentation when the tire is inflated to full pressure.

These indentations may not look great, but they are harmless. Even if they appear on a newly installed tire you have no cause for alarm. The same cannot be said for bulges.

Bulges appearing on the sidewall of a recently installed tire are definitely bad news. In most cases, these bulges are the result of a space between some of the body ply cords inside the tire. When this happens with new tires the solution is simple: return the tire.

This situation is almost invariably covered under the manufacturer’s warranty. This is a workmanship/materials defect, and it is not the fault of the technician that installed the tire. Although tire manufacturer’s do a lot of testing before the tires reach the marketplace, this is a problem that just doesn’t show up until the tire is installed and inflated.

If you’re tires have developed a bulge a significant amount of time after being installed, then it probably isn’t the materials that are at fault. Ply cords, though by no means delicate, can be damaged by impacts with curbs or road hazards, or by running into potholes. If this happens, it’s time for a visit to your local tire dealer.


Source by Guy Goodyear

23 Games to Play in the Car (or Anywhere!)


How many of you find that travel or riding to or from an event, school or camp accounts for some of the quality time you have with your children? Instead of spending that time in silence or frustrated because you are listening to the same child-music CD for the 18th time that day, try a fun car game. These games often lead to laughter and memorable moments. These are also great when trying to keep children entertained in lines, waiting rooms, etc.

Here are a few that I have learned over the years, heard about from friends, or created with my daughter.

Guessing Games

Car Colors: Choose a time limit such as 10 minutes or 30 minutes – depending on the length of the drive. Have each rider make a guess about how many cars of a certain color will be spotted during that time. The closest guesser wins. You can also do this in “sprint fashion” by using 3 -minute intervals as your time limit. Whoever is closest gets a point for that time segment. The first one to 5 points wins.

Odd or Even: Each player makes a guess at how many of the next 20 license plates will end with an even number. The one who is closest wins. It helps to have a little tally chart to keep score. You can lengthen the game by increasing the number of license plates.

Spy: You are probably familiar with this one. One player announces something that they see and the other players try to guess what it is by asking questions. The only trick when doing this while driving is that it has to be something that won’t go out of view – like the sky, the road, etc. Someone announces that they “spy” something and gives a clue. Example: I spy something blue. The players then take turns guessing until some one gets it. Whoever guesses correctly starts the next spy-turn.

20 Questions:One person thinks of a famous person, place or thing. Everyone else is allowed to ask the player 20 questions which can only be answered ‘yes’ or ‘no.’ Whoever guesses correctly becomes the next person to think of something. (We play this without a limit on the number of questions.)

Observation Games

The Alphabet Game: I am sure you know this one! Each player sequentially works through the alphabet looking for something that starts with a specific letter. For example: A might be apple tree or a word on a sign. Once a player finds an A word, they move onto B. (Have fun with Q, X and Z!) The first rider to work through the alphabet wins. Variation: Use only letters found on billboards, or letters on license plates.

The Animal Game:If you are in more rural areas where cars aren’t abundant, try the animal game. Keep on the lookout for animals and when you see one be the first to make the animal sound. For example if you saw a cow you would say “moooo.” The first person to make the animal sound wins a point. Play to a designated number of points. You can make this game a bit more complicated for older kids by adding a designated number of points depending on the commonality of the animal – i.e. cows are 1 point, pigs are 2 points, etc.

Find it First:Choose an item such as Volkswagen bugs, farms, people taking walks, silos, etc. Then choose a number like 5 or 20 depending on the length of your drive. See who can find the designated number of the chosen item first.

Music Games

Hum-Along: One rider hums a song and the other passengers try to guess. The person who guesses goes next. The first one to guess 3 right wins.

Radio Game 1:Hit the “scan” button on your radio until it stops on a song. The first person to guess the artist wins.

Radio Game 2:This isn’t so much a game but a way not to fight over music! The first person to take a turn goes through the dial until they find a song they like. You then listen to that song until completed. Then the next rider does the same, etc., etc. The only rule is that if you go all the way through the dial without finding a song you like then you need to listen to the last song you land on or lose a turn.

Radio Game 3:While the radio is off, each rider chooses a word. Turn the radio on. The winner is the person whose word is spoken or sung first.

Creative Thinking Games

Story-Telling:One passenger starts a story with a single sentence. Then the next person adds a sentence. Continue until you build a complete story.

The Question Game: Take turns asking open and thoughtful questions and allowing each person time to answer. Examples:

If you were on a deserted island and could only take 3 things, what would you take and why?

Who are your mentors/heroes and why?

If you won the lottery what you do with it?

If you could have lunch with a famous person, who would you pick and why?

Note: If you really get into this game, you can purchase small books called “The Book of Questions” at most bookstores that give you a ton of subjects to choose from!

Word Games

Word Sequence: Choose a topic such as animals, places, television shows, people, fruit, etc. Name something in your category. If you choose animals you might say “panda.” The next player has to name an animal that starts with the last letter of your animal. In this example, their animal would have to start with the letter “A” such as “alligator.” Play continues until someone can’t think of a word. They are then eliminated. When you have only 1 person left, they are the winner. You cannot use any animal name twice. (If you are playing with real young children, let them have the handicap of being able to use the same word twice).

The Round Game: My daughter made up this one and we have had great fun with it. Even my best friend who is single and childless enjoys this game over dinner with us. We choose a topic such as vegetables, board games, television shows, cities, types of cereal, flowers, movies, etc. Then we name something within that category. For example for cereal the first player might say “Cheerios.” Then the next player names a cereal. Play continues until someone can’t think of an item, then they are “out.” Play continues until there is only one person left. For young children, let them have three “passes” as a handicap.

The Rhyming Game:Someone picks a word to start with, such as “ball.” The next player has to come up with a word that rhymes. Play continues until someone cannot think of a rhyming word. As always, give younger players a hint or two. You make the game more difficult for older kids by having each player recite the previous list of words before adding their own.

Tongue Twisters:Choose a person that you all know, example, “Sara.” Then start with a phrase about that person that uses only the first letter of her name such as “Sara says strawberries…” take turns adding “S” words with as few “connectors” as possible (a connector is a word that doesn’t start with S) to see how silly of a tongue twister you can create!

Memory Games

My father/mother owns a grocery store:One player begins the round by stating, “My father owns a grocery store, and in it he sells (something that begins with the letter A; e.g., ant traps).” The next player states, “My father owns a grocery store, and in it he sells ants traps and (something that begins with the letter B; e.g., bananas). “Play continues with each player having to recite the current list and then add something that begins with the next sequential letter of the alphabet. For young players, offer them “3 strikes” where you will help them if they forget the list. Adults–sorry, no handicap for you!

Variation: You can vary this game to match your interests or those of a child. Example:

My mother owns a clothing store and in it she sells ____________

My brother owns a music store and in it he sells -______________

My sister works as a producer and she has produced __________ (insert television show)

My father owns a bookstore and in it he sells _________________

Just Plain Silly Games

Laugh A Lot: Choose a player to keep a straight face. The rest of the players choose a silly answer for the player to use such as “My shoe.” Then players take turns asking questions such as,

What do you brush your hair with?

What is your favorite snack?

Who is your hero?

Where is your favorite vacation destination?

The player keeping the straight face has to answer with “My shoe,” while trying to keep a straight face. If they laugh then play passes to someone else and a new phrase is established.

Math Games

Add-it-up: Call out the numbers on the license plate and see who can add up the numbers the quickest. For example D572-43X – players would have to calculate 5+7+2+4+3. Whoever answers correctly gets a point. The one who reaches 5 points first is the winner. (No calculators allowed.)

Games that Require a Bit of Preparation

Travel Bingo:Make a bingo board with color names in the squares. Print out several on your home computer. As you drive, players place an X when they see a car of the specific color. You can add to the excitement by letting each car only be used by the first person to “call it.” Try 4 corners, blackout (filing up the whole card) making an X on the card, etc.

Variation: Make a “mixed” car board and include different types of items on the card such as:

Fire truck

Stop light

Grocery store

National Historic Monument

Lake or Pond


Police Car


Speed Talking: (You will need either a timer or watch with a second hand)

Choose a topic and then talk for 60 seconds straight without repeating yourself or pausing. One point is awarded if you accomplish the goal. Take turns playing to a designated number of points depending on the length of your drive. If someone makes it 30 seconds, award them ½ a point.

Game for a Tired Driver

Statue:On a long trip and need some quiet time? Play a round of statue. The person who can stay still and quiet the longest wins!

Print a copy of this article and store it in your glove compartment! Whenever kids are bored or restless in the car, you’ll be equipped with fun ideas to turn long road trips into magical memories!


Source by Brook Noel

Auction and Lottery: Which Is a Better Method of Allocating Scarce Licenses?


In China, some major cities are restricting new car purchases so that they can cut down on traffic and pollution. According to reports, only a certain number of licenses to purchase cars will be granted. The cities have been experiment with various models for granting these licenses that feature either an auction of lottery method. These methods each have their strong points, but there are also many critics of both systems. As the world watches China to see if this new license program will work to cut down on the nation’s traffic and pollution problems, it will also be able to witness the success of either type of allocation process.

The Auction Process

The auction process allows interested parties to bid on the licenses that are up for grabs, so to speak. In essence, interested bidders could run the cost of each license quite high. For a poor person who really needs a license in order to get to work or for traveling to visit family frequently, the cost at auction could be prohibitive. Critics say that only the wealthy will be able to obtain licenses at auction. On the other hand, people who really want a license and are willing to pay whatever it takes to obtain one will have the opportunity to do so.

The Lottery Process

The lottery process is far less lucrative for the city but also more democratic for the people. Anyone interested in obtaining a license can sign up for the lottery. Licenses are then granted by pulling names out of a hat, so to speak. While this system regards the rich and poor alike, it also allows anyone who is remotely interested in a license to throw their hat into the ring right along with parties that are more in desperate need of a license.

Which Allocation System Is Best?

What has been emerging from China’s large cities is that the auction system is increasingly favored. For one, lottery rules prevent winners from trading their licenses. So, if someone threw their name into the lottery and won, but they didn’t want the license as much as a relative, they couldn’t transfer the win. Moreover, the lottery seems to fuel more black market activity regarding the sale of licenses. As reports suggest, “the lottery does not satisfy all gainful trades is made painfully obvious by black markets for licenses.” (1)

Moving the process to an auction-based system removes the necessity of a black market process substantially and allows the city to reap the monetary benefits. In fact, cities that are making money on licenses can then turn around and spend that money on their public transportation systems.

Can’t Cities Adopt Both Models?

The simple answer to whether cities can adopt both the lottery and auction model is yes. Some are suggesting that it’s a great idea to split the licenses between the two systems. Allow some to be granted by the lottery and allow the rest to go to auction. It’s important to remember that the auction process assure “buyers of normal, traditional closings, without unnecessary confusion.” (Source: Heritage Global Partners, “Auctions,”) While the auction system seems to be increasingly popular in China, it is also a popular allocation method worldwide.


1. CKGSB Knowledge, “Restrictions on New Car Purchases,”


Source by Lillian Dawn

Delving Into Material Handling Solutions


What is Material Handling Solutions?

The post millennium technological advancement has engulfed every sphere of our lives in every possible way. This specific technological material advancement has encompassed the culture, the life style and every possible area man has been engaged to. The last decade of the new millennium was revolutionary and disruptive enough to shake mankind from its roots. The aspect of logistics including production and distribution in factories and heavy machinery industry has also gone through immense changes since its inception during the time of industrial revolution. Material Handling Solutions has gone through immense changes in this context.

Australia has been one of the prime area where material handling solutions given major importance. Material handling solutions helps in preserving the actual value of the material which is in questions for users as well the person who would be purchasing effortlessly and without any kind of stress. The main advantage of material handling solution is minimizing indirect labour cost which might be going up due to manual transportation, due to loading, unloading and shifting.

These material handling solutions help in major reduction of damage to any and every kind of material available in factories. Efficiency and effectiveness of the factory process is definitely going to increase by manifolds. Another major advantage of material handling is that it increases the salability of the product. There are several numbers of material devices which are discussed through the following lines.

The Types Which Are Available More or Less

There are several numbers of material handling solutions which are available across the world. This includes storage and handling equipments with the likes of Scissor Lift Tables, Forklift etc. it also encompasses the areas of bulk material handling, transfer carts as well as a variety of storage handling solutions, which reduces the work related injuries to a great extent.

i) Storage and Handling Tools

One of the main features of material handling solutions is storage and handling equipments. With the acronym of Catalog, the whole gamut of cataloguing system includes pallet racks and carts. These equipments in most cases are non-automated kinds.

ii) Engineered Handling Systems

The automated equipments fall under the category of material handling solutions. This section includes a host of products including conveyors, automated stacking, robots as well as automated guided vehicles and several others on its platter. The most significant of the tools is the Scissor lifts Tables which is used for automated lifting of materials up and down. This system helps in optimisation of the storage of the industrial goods.

iii) Transfer Carts

The carts are able to mobilize through tracks which are laid down on the factory floor. These carts are the perfect mechanism for moving metallurgy, heavy machines and auto motive assembly. It processes the capability to drag heavy weight from one point to another.

iv) Conveyor

Conveyors especially conveyor belts are used for transferring materials to shorter distance. These mechanisms are seen to be used in the areas of airport and warehouses for easy transportation of materials. There is a huge variety of conveyor which is available to choose from for the right purpose.

v) Industrial Trucks

Industrial trucks are proper vehicles which are used to transfer materials for long distance or used within the factory areas for lifting purposes. These trucks mainly run on fuels such as petroleum, propane or electricity. In most cases these machines are operated manually but are extremely versatile in nature. Common examples of these industrial trucks are forklifts, stock chasers and tow tractors.

vi) Cranes

Cranes are materials which are rigorously used for hoisting up and down materials of purpose. These equipments are often found in ships and dock and especially multistoried buildings during the times of constructions or demolitions for moving of extremely heavy and large loads. There are variable types which are available in the market. Decide wisely on the right choice of the equipment which would be apt for building.

If you have the dire need to invest in material handling solutions there are a number of manufactures available online. Have thorough research on what specifically you would need, and then make the purchase. Go for the ones which are durable, powerful and reliable, which will help you to attain your goals in years to come.


Source by John Winson

What Is the Difference Between Rebar and Wire Mesh?


A little knowledge goes a long way in helping you make an educated decision when hiring a contractor. If you are looking at having a new concrete driveway poured, you may be asked to decide if you’d like wire mesh or rebar used for support. If you have no idea how to answer that question, this article will provide a brief overview to give you an informed decision.

Wire Mesh

Wire mesh is made from cold reduced deformed steel. It comes to the contractor in a roll that, when laid out, is a series of open squares. Imagine square chicken wire made of thick steel bars. The bars have ridges to help the concrete attach to them. The wire mesh is used to add strength to the concrete. First, it is there to give support during the “green” period when the concrete is setting. Then it helps maintain the concrete’s integrity against cracking during its lifetime.


Rebar, shortened from “reinforcing bar,” is also made of steel. It is rounded bars with ridges that measure in sizes varying by 1/8th inch thickness. Also used for support, rebar is generally laid individually in larger squares than the wire mesh. Rebar is a major component in adding strength and maintaining structure when cracking occurs.

So which do you chose?


Wire mesh is cheaper than rebar. Firstly, wire mesh is made of thinner steel bars, so less materials. As you’ll recall, it can be rolled up. And secondly, because it does come in a roll, the labor of installation is less intensive. Rebar’s cost will depend upon the thickness of the bars and will ultimately add to more labor expense.


Rebar is definitely the stronger candidate for support. However, that said, if we’re talking about a four inch thick residential driveway (four inches is the thickness recommended for driveways holding less than 10,000 lbs), mesh does the trick just fine. In fact, many contractors consider rebar for residential jobs overkill. If you are looking to get a thicker driveway because you plan on having heavy trucks or an RV parked on it, then rebar is a good suggestion.


Both wire mesh and rebar cannot prevent cracking, but are helpful in holding the concrete together when cracking occurs. The steel behaves similarly to concrete in how it expands and contracts during hot and cold temperatures, which is why it’s used in concrete slabs. Likewise, the mesh and rebar will stop small cracks from expanding further. Wire mesh must be laid correctly to serve the concrete best. It should be directly in the middle of the slab. So a four inch slab should have the wire mesh two inches deep. If it becomes exposed to the air, it ultimately can rust and lead to cracking. But a good contractor will make sure that doesn’t happen. Some contractors feel the smaller squares of the mesh, and the thinner steel, allows for more flexibility as the contractions in the concrete occur, staving off cracking better than rebar.

The myth about strength

When people talk about mesh or rebar and compare it for strength, one major part of the discussion should focus on the base of the concrete slab. Neither wire mesh nor rebar will perform its duty if the bottom of the slab isn’t laid properly to hold concrete.


Source by Stefano Grossi